The history of school counseling around the world varies greatly based on how different countries and local communities have chosen to provide academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social skills and competencies to K-12 children and their families based on economic and social capital resources and public versus private educational settings in what is now called a school counseling program. In the United States, the school counseling profession began as a vocational guidance movement at the beginning of the 20th century. Jesse B. Davis is considered the first to provide a systematic school guidance program. In 1907, he became the principal of a high school and encouraged the school English teachers to use compositions and lessons to relate career interests, develop character, and avoid behavioral problems. Many others during this time did the same. For example, in 1908, Frank Parsons, "Father of Vocational Guidance" established the Bureau of Vocational Guidance to assist young people in making the transition from school to work. From the 1920s to the 1930s, school counseling and guidance grew because of the rise of progressive education in schools. This movement emphasized personal, social, moral development. Many schools reacted to this movement as anti-educational, saying that schools should teach only the fundamentals of education. This, combined with the economic hardship of the Great Depression, led to a decline in school counseling and guidance. In the 1940s, the U.S. used psychologists and counselors to select, recruit, and train military personnel. This propelled the counseling movement in schools by providing ways to test students and meet their needs. Schools accepted these military tests openly. Also, Carl Rogers' emphasis on helping relationships during this time influenced the profession of school counseling.
The History of Guidance
Throughout the history of humankind there have been many people and professionals who have become confidants and helpers for persons who have sought assistance.
The First Counselors:
Hippocrates: One of the First
History of Contemporary
Industrial Revolution & the Vocational Guidance Movement
The Industrial Revolution resulted in a concentration of the workforce, and uncertainly in the labor market. Subsequent, there was a growth in secondary school enrollment and a challenge to the relevance of a classical education for preparing a skilled worker.
Brewer (1942) 4 social cues:
The division of labor
The growth of technology
The extension of vocational
The spread of democracy
Parson’s Model of Career
Further Developments in Career
1950s- Life-span models of career development
1960s- E.G. Williamson - “Trait-and-Factor” Theory
- Every person has a unique pattern of traits made up of their interests, values, abilities and personality characteristics, these traits can be objectively identified and profiled to represent an individual’s potential Further Developments in Career
The Carl D. Persons Vocational Act of 1984
-Under the act, "special populations" include those who have a disability, are disadvantaged, or have limited English proficiency. This law is particularly important, because it requires that vocational education be provided for students with disabilities. School Guidance
1908,- Frank Parsons, "Father of Vocational Guidance" established the Bureau of Vocational Guidance to assist young people in making the transition from school to work. School Guidance
1920’s-1930’s - school counseling and guidance grew because of the rise of progressive education in schools. This movement emphasized personal, social, moral development. Many schools reacted to this movement as anti-educational, saying that schools should teach only the fundamentals of...