History 221 Timeline Part 2

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Major Event/Epoch in American HistoryTime Period/Date(s)Description and Significance of the People/Event(s) to American History 1)Describe three different American Indian cultures prior to colonization. A) California Culture

B) The Mississippian Culture
C) The Clovis CultureA. Mid 16th Century B. 800 to early 15th Century C. 9500 BC to 8000 BCA. The California Culture of Native Americans contained an estimated 300,000 members (more than any other culture). The California area included 100 different tribes and more than 200 dialects. These early California natives did not practice agriculture. They instead formed small family based groups of hunter-gatherers known as tribelets. B. The Mississippian Culture was existed the Midwestern, Eastern and Southeastern United States. They were a mound-building based group whose cultural traits included maize based agriculture and shell tempered pottery, the development of chiefdom and the adoption of the paraphernalia of Southeastern Cermmonia Complex (SECC). They had no writing system or stone architechture. C. The Clovis Culture is recognized as one of the oldest prehistoric cultures. The Clovis spear point, an early tool used by Ice Age people has been found in Alaska, California and even Maine. But are especially common in Ohio and other eastern states. The Clovis were big game hunters and were scattered across the Great Plains. They lived in small camps along rivers and streams. They abruptly vanished around 10,500 years ago. 2)The effects of British colonization on the Native Americans.Early 1600’sBritish Colonization had many effects on Native Americans including: loss of land, disease, laws which violated their cultures (including aggressive attempts to convert to Christianity), food shortage and loss of life from numerous battles. 3)The evolution of the socio-political milieu during the colonial period, including Protestant Christianity’s impact on colonial social life.1600-1700’sAlthough Puritans came to America to find religious freedom, they were the majority and were not open to other religious groups and their views. Eventually, other religions began to gain popularity. These new formed religions attracted many different people from all walks of life. As such, Religion became a dominant factor in American politics and was even addressed in the First Amendment. 4)The effects of the Seven Years’ War.1756-1763The Seven Years’ War was a conflict between England and France in which Britain was ultimately victorious. It ended with the Treaty of Paris, in which France lost all claims to Canada, and Britain received Spanish Florida, Upper Canada and various French oversee holdings. Britain’s control of colonial America eventually led to the Revolutionary War, in which France intervened on the side of the Patriots. 5)The evolution of the concept of “God-given freedom of the individual” stemming from the Protestant Reformation and developing through the American Enlightenment and the Great Awakening, and culminating with the Declaration of Independence.1600-1776Many of America’s early settlers included people who came to America seeking freedom from religious persecution. Protestantism was one of most popular religions at the time. A series of revivals known as the “Great Awakening” were sermons aimed at colonists, encouraging them to live according to the will of their own God. As it turned out, the right to God-given freedom was one that colonists demanded when declaring independence from Britain. 6)The evolution of the socio-political and cultural milieu that created the conditions necessitating and including the formation of the: a)Declaration of Independence

b)U.S. Constitution (including the Bill of Rights)1776 * * *...
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