Portuguese (Madeirans and Maltese)
Group Members: Robinette Hemely
Where they came?
Most Madeirans came to the the British Guyana to work on a plantation in Demarara. Madeirans in Guyana
* In 1834 the fisrt 40 Madeirans came to Guyana to work as indentured labourers on a ship called “Louisa Belle.” * By the end of 1835, 553 Madeirans came on another trip to Guyana * In the time period 1836-1839 no Madeirans came to Guyana (As the Portuguese government did not want to see all their subjects leave * In 1839, 209 Maltese (from Malta) came to Guyana
* Things picked up in 1840 as 15 Madeirans came and in 1841, 4297 arrived * In 1846 alone 6000 Madeirans arrived due to great famine in their country * In 1848, 4000 Madeirans were added to the pack
* In 1881, The largest number went to Guyana- 32,216 Madeirans * The last set came in 1882
Mdeirans in Trinidad
* The first 125 Madeirans went to Trinidad in 1834
* A small amount went to Trinidad because of the 1846 famine Note
* Because of the famine Madeira small numbers went St.Vincent, Grenada, Dominica, St.Kitts, Nevis, Antigua, and Jamaica. When the famine ended in 1847 the immigration slackened and was confined to mainly Guyana, St.Kitts and Antigua.
The “Bounty” System
Their recruitment was a part of a migration system based on the “bounty” system. Under this system, public money, made available by the British government was used to pay the planters for each immigrant transported to the colony. The first 40 Immigrants came through a private enterprise of the planters who were made aware of great poverty and political instability in the island.
Push and Pull Factors
1. Poverty in Madeira
2. Political instability
3. Emigrants returned to Madeira with earnings which encouraged family members 4. The famine that fell on their country in 1846
5. Low wages. In Madeira workers were paid only 3 to 4 pence per day.
1. Work was available and this would free them from poverty 2. Food was available in the British West Indies in contrast to Madeira 3. Attracted by prospects of higher wages in the British West Indies
By large The Europeans turned out to be unsuccessful labourers. Many of those who went to Jamaica were accustomed to sea-faring life and thought agricultural labour uncongenial. In all colonies, employers failed to provide adequate food, shelter and medical facilities to overcome the difficult initial period of acclimatization. Immigrants fell prey to the hot climatic conditions especially in Jamaica combined with excessive rum drinking. While the survivors unwilling to do work previously done by slaves, drifted into the towns, emigrated to the United States, or returned to their native countries.(from the book, POST EMANCIPATION HISTORY OF THE WEST INDIES)
Terms of Their Contracts
LEGAL DOCUMENTS: (This is an example)
This INDENTURE Witnesseth that James Best a Labourer doth Voluntarily put himself Servant to Captain Stephen Jones Master of the Snow Sally to serve the said Stephen Jones and his Assigns, for and during the full Space, Time and Term of three Years from the first Day of the said James’ arrival in Philadelphia in AMERICA, during which Time or Term the said Master or his Assigns shall and will find and supply the said James with sufficient Meat, Drink, Apparel, Lodging and all other necessaries befitting such a Servant, and at the end and expiration of said Term, the said James to be made Free, and receive according to the Custom of the Country. Provided nevertheless, and these Presents are on this Condition, that if the said James shall pay the...