Create a 700- to 1,050-word timeline paper of the historical development of nursing science, starting with Florence Nightingale and continuing to the present. Format the timeline however you wish, but the word count and assignment requirements must be met. Include the following in your timeline:
• Explain the historical development of nursing science by citing specific years, theories, theorists, and events in the history of nursing.
• Explain the relationship between nursing science and the profession.
• Include the influences on nursing science of other disciplines, such as philosophy, religion, education, anthropology, the social sciences, and psychology.
Prepare to discuss your timeline with your Learning Team or in class. Format all references consistent with APA guidelines.
Copyright © 2013 Penn Nursing Science, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing
Nursing Theories. The Base for Professional Nursing Practice, Sixth Edition Chapter 2: Nursing Theory and Clinical Practice
ISBN: 9780135135839 Author: Julia B. GeorgeRN, PhD
copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
lorence Nightingale believed that the force for healing resides within the human being and that, if the environment is appropriately supportive, humans will seek to heal themselves. Her 13 canons indicate the areas of environment of concern to nursing. These are ventilation and warming, health of houses (pure air, pure water, efficient drainage, cleanliness, and light), petty management (today known as continuity of care), noise, variety, taking food, what food, bed and bedding, light, cleanliness of rooms and walls, personal cleanliness, chattering hopes and advices, and observation of the sick. Hildegard E. Peplau focused on the interpersonal relationship between the nurse and the patient. The three phases of this relationship are orientation, working, and termination. The relationship is initiated by the patient’s felt need and termination occurs when the need is met. Both the nurse and the patient grow as a result of their interaction. Virginia Henderson first defined nursing as doing for others what they lack the strength, will, or knowledge to do for themselves and then identified 14 components of care. These components provide a guide to identifying areas in which a person may lack the strength, will, or knowledge to meet personal needs. They include breathing, eating and drinking, eliminating, moving, sleeping and resting, dressing and undressing appropriately, maintaining body temperature, keeping clean and protecting the skin, avoiding dangers and injury to others, communicating, worshiping, working, playing, and learning. Dorothea E. Orem identified three theories of self-care, self-care deficit, and nursing systems. The ability of the person to meet daily requirements is known as self-care, and carrying out those activities is self-care agency. Parents serve as dependent care agents for their children. The ability to provide self-care is influenced by basic conditioning factors including but not limited to age, gender, and developmental state. Self-care needs are partially determined by the self-care requisites, which are categorized as universal (air, water, food, elimination, activity and rest, solitude and social interaction, hazard prevention, function within social groups), developmental, and health deviation (needs arising from injury or illness and from efforts to treat the injury or illness). The total demands created by the self-care requisites are identified as therapeutic self-care demand. When the therapeutic self-care demand exceeds self-care agency, a self-care deficit exists, and nursing is needed. Based on the needs, the nurse designs nursing systems that are wholly compensatory (the nurse provides all...