Cognitive learning occurs when information processed in short-term memory is stored in long-term memory. Rehearsal involves the mental repetition of information or, more formally, the recycling of information through short-term memory. The amount of elaboration (the degree of integration between the stimulus and existing knowledge) that occurs during processing influences the amount of learning that takes place.
• Intentional learning: deliberate learning with the intent of later remembering what is learned. • Incidental learning: learning that occurs despite the absence of the intention to do so.
Mental representations refer to the particular manner in which information is stored in long-term memory. The concept of dual coding proposes that information can be stored in both semantic and visual forms. Associative network: a theory of memory organization that proposes that memory nodes containing bits of information are linked to other memory nodes in a series of hierarchical networks.
Retrieval involves the activation of information stored in long-term memory that’s then transferred into short-term memory.
A retrieval cue is a stimulus that activates information in memory relevant to the to-be-remembered information. According to the concept of spreading activation, activating one memory node causes a ripple effect that spreads throughout its linkages to other nodes. The failure to retrieve something from memory is commonly known as forgetting. According to decay theory, memories grow weaker with the passage of time. Interference theory proposes that the chances of retrieving a particular piece of information become smaller as interference from other information becomes larger.
• Free recall: a type of recall measure that does not use any retrieval cues. • Cued recall: a type of recall measure in which certain types of retrieval cues are provided....