Indus Valley Civilization
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Extent of the Indus Valley Civilization imposed over modern borders Bronze AgeThis box: * view * talk * edit|
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The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) located in the western region of South Asia, and spread over what are now Pakistan, northwest India, and eastern Afghanistan. Flourishing in the River basin, the civilization[n 1] extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the upper reaches Ganges-Yamuna Doab; it extended west to the Makran coast of Baluchistan and north to northeastern Afghanistan. The civilization was spread over some 1,260,000 km², making it the largest ancient civilization. The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft (carneol products, seal carving) and produced copper, bronze, lead, and tin. The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses. The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, as the first of its cities to be unearthed was located at Harappa, excavated in the 1920s in what was at the time the Punjab province of British India (now in Pakistan). Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area of the Harappan Civilization. The Harappan civilization is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Indus river and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Ganweriwala, Dholavira, and Rakhigarhi. The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. A relationship with the Dravidian or Elamo-Dravidian language family is favored by most accounts. Contents [hide] * 1 Discovery and excavation * 2 Chronology * 3 Geography * 4 Background- Early Harappan * 5 Mature Harappan * 5.1 Cities * 5.2 Authority and governance * 5.3 Science * 5.4 Arts and crafts * 5.5 Trade and transportation * 5.6 Subsistence * 5.7 Writing system * 5.8 Religion * 6 The collapse and Late Harappan * 7 Legacy * 8 Historical context and linguistic affiliation * 9 Developments in July 2010 * 10 See also * 11 Notes and references * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links| -------------------------------------------------
Discovery and excavation
Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization. The shaded area does not include recent excavations. The ruins of Harrappa were first described in 1842 by Charles Masson in...