GVT Task 2
Western Governors University
The mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and large intestine consisting of the transverse colon, descending colon, ascending colon, cecum, sigmoid colon, rectum, vermiform appendix and anus are all part of the alimentary canal. The function of the alimentary canal is to provide nourishment. The teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver and pancreas are considered to be accessory digestive organs. These organs produce saliva (salivary glands), bile (gallbladder and liver) and digestive enzymes which contribute to the breakdown process of food. Mechanical digestion begins with the process of taking food into the mouth or ingestion and chewing it until it can be moved through the alimentary canal during the propulsion process. This process includes swallowing and in a series of muscle contractions and relaxation it is then moved from one organ to another. Swallowing is performed in the pharynx while peristalsis occurs in the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine. Breakdown of the food in the stomach, also called churning and in the small intestine are also part of the mechanical digestion process. When food leaves the stomach the process of chemical digestion begins. This is when carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are broken down into simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol, otherwise known as chemical building blocks. Enzymes are chiefly responsible for carrying out chemical digestion and are secreted in the central cavity of the alimentary canal. Digestive enzymes include salivary and pancreatic amylase, present in the mouth and small intestine, maltase and lactase which are also present in the small intestine and are involved with carbohydrate digestion. Pepsin which is present in the stomach and chymotrypsin present in the small intestine both involved with...