Guillain Barre Syndrome

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I.Abstract
Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is an auto-immune disease that is rare but can lead to paralysis of limbs and the diaphragm. Ventilatory failure is commonly seen in patients with progressing diseases. The causes of GBS syndrome is unknown, however a few culprits are being studied. The most common explanation for GBS is the demyelination of the peripheral nervous system. Other causes in question include flu vaccinations and certain bacteria such as Campylobacter Jejuni. Patients diagnosed with GBS start off with a febrile episode, followed by muscle weakness, ascending paralyzation, and increased oral secretions. A patient can be diagnosed better by various testing such as measuring the patient’s Negative inspiratory force, blood gasses and vital capacity. The management of GBS is fairly easy but very tedious, the diagnostic numbers must be constantly updated and therefore stabilization and continuous monitoring of vital signs is an important method to manage the disease. Treatments include continuous bronchopulmonary hygiene and mechanical ventilation. More serious cases of the disease can be treated with procedures such as Plasmaphoresis and High immunoglobin transfusions. The onset of the disease will eventually stop and will spontaneously reverse itself. 90% of patients recover from the disease with the help of early diagnosis, proper management and physical rehabilitation. Only 10% of these patients will recover but with permanent neurological damage. In conclusion, the disease is fairly insidious but is manageable and can be overcome by most of the patients that get it. Although a severe and high level medical emergency disease, the probability of regaining health after an episode is very high and successful.

II.Introduction
A disease that is continually studied, the Guillain- Barre Syndrome proves to be an uncommon occurrence that is still ill defined due to causes of pathophysiologic abnormalities are unknown. There are different types of the disease, in some, the diagnosis can be detected by the direction of where the paralyzation occurs. In most cases of Guillain Barre, paralyzation occurs from the lower extremities and comes up. In another form called the Miller Fischer disorder, the paralyzation occurs from the top to the bottom extremities. In Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy the disease is caused by auto-immune responses attacking schwann cells. The danger of paralysis in GBS affects the respiratory functions by paralyzing respiratory muscles and will eventually manifest as ventilatory failure. Guillain Barre in all its forms- is a spontaneous disease that can quickly disrupt a patient’s wellbeing. Although severe, the progression of the disease into a full blown paralyzation with permanent neurological damage can be avoidable if treated properly. In this paper, I will discuss the etiology and epidemiology of the disease, particularly the primary causes and the number of the population that is affected. Afterwards I will discuss its pathology and the way it works by demyelination of the peripheral nerves on a previously healthy human being. I will then mention the clinical manifestations of the disease, what signs and changes to look for in a patient and when to change the care plan for a patient with GBS. After aforementioned section, I will discuss methods of diagnosis and how these methods help in differentiating the disease from others. This section will include the Negative Inspiratory Force technique and others. Following methods of diagnosis, I will give examples of management and treatment plans for patients and their caregivers. I will end with the prognosis of Guillain Barre which discusses the usual length of the disease and how it progresses. Lastly, the conclusion of this research which is based on the effectiveness of properly treating and managing Guillain-Barre and what it does to help lessen treatment time for a patient. III. Etiology and Epidemiology...
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