This paper contains a general overview of the greenhouse effect and a deep understanding about the global warming phenomena. It includes general background knowledge about greenhouse as well as how does human action contribute and influence its effect. This paper also highlights on the nature and fundamental causes of greenhouse gases. The term of Greenhouse:
A greenhouse which is also known as a glasshouse is an architectural building with roof and walls made from glass or plastic as covering materials. Heat is retained in the greenhouse because the incoming visible solar radiation from the sun is absorbed by plants and soil inside the building. The roof and the wall retain the air warmed by the heat from hot interior surfaces as glass acts as a barrier to air making it possible for energy to trap within it. Greenhouse is warmed as the glass allows sunlight through but traps the warm air from escaping. The warmed structures and plants inside the greenhouse re-radiate some of their thermal energy as glass is partly opaque causing convection due to energy trapped inside the glasshouse. The blanket layer of gases in particular carbon dioxide traps much heat and prevents it from escaping back into space as radiation. Mother Earth is gradually warmer as air is trapped as created by the ‘greenhouse effect’. The air that is warmed near the ground is prevented from rising and flowing away. Plastic greenhouses and glass greenhouses are examples of greenhouses. The former are often high-tech production facilities for vegetables or flowers whereas the latter commonly used polyethylene film and multiwall sheets of polycarbonate material. The glass greenhouses which are controlled by computers are equipped with screening installations, heating, cooling and lighting facilities. The growing environment of plants can be closely monitored by greenhouses which depend on the key factors such as temperature, levels of light, irrigation, fertilizer application, and humidity level of the atmosphere. Greenhouses may be used to solve problems such as improving the qualities of plots of land and consequently to improve the food production. Generally greenhouses are utilized for growing crops such as vegetables, flowers and fruits. Tomatoes can be grown commercially in the greenhouse. In winter, warm weather vegetables need heat and light for growth. Therefore, crops grown in greenhouses in late winter can be replanted outside as the weather becomes warmer. Hydroponics can also be used and most greenhouses depend on sprinklers for the growth of the vegetables and flowers.
The different greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere include carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrous oxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons. These gases are not similar in their concentration and in their effectiveness at trapping heat. The most effective greenhouse gas is water vapour which has the highest concentration in the atmosphere. Human activities are not directly linked to the high concentration of the water vapour present. The most vital greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide. 75% of the gas emissions of carbon dioxide is caused by human activities over the past two decades comes from the burning of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels such as coal, gas and oil which take million of years to form are the remnants of plants and animals in ancient time. When they are burnt, they release heat together with carbon dioxide and water vapour. Fossil fuels are used to power vehicles, heat homes and power factories. The emissions of carbon dioxide also come from transformation in land use especially deforestation which increases steadily over the last thirty decades. The burning of forests especially rainforests adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Open burning also contributes to the increase of carbon dioxide. Methane and nitrous oxide are both produced by bacteria that live in swamps, rice paddies and landfill sites which are large holes in...