Government Comparisons

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| Developer Type| Executive: Head of Govt.(Head of State)| Executive Selection Method| Legislature: Lower House (Upper House)| Electoral System (Lower House)| Other Institutions/Players| Key Interest Groups| Political Parties| Political Culture| Britain| Early| PM (Monarch)| PM: Appt. by H. of Commons| H. of Commons (H. of Lords)| Single-member district (1MD) FPTP | Whitehall, regions, London, traditional establishment (Church, military, old universities), ethnic minorities| Big business, big labor| Conservative, Labour, LDP, regional parties| Traditionalism, Gradualism, Negotiation and Compromise, Mutual obligation/responsibility, limited multi-culturalism| France| Early| Premier (President)| PM: Appt. by Pres., Pres.: direct election| National Assembly (Senate)| 1MD w/run-off| Grand corps (ministries), Grandes Ecoles (elite universities)| | The Left, the Right, the ultra-Right (National Front)| Ancien regime, the Revolution, Bonapartist synthesis, traditional (boutique) economy, strong centralized state| Germany| Middle| Chancellor (President)| Chancellor: appt. by Bundesrat, President: appt. by lander and Legislature| Bundesrat (Bundestag)| Hybrid 1MD FPTP and PR w/ 5% threshold| | Lander, (corporatism) bureaucracy, big business, big labor, farmers| CDU/CDP, SDP, FDP, the Left, Greens| Conservative values, bureaucratic control, state-led development, nationalism, subordinate middle class| Japan| Middle| PM (Emperor)| PM: appt by Diet| The Diet: H. of Representatives (H. of Councilors)| Hybrid 1MD FPTP and MMD PR| Note: Japan Economic Model (MITI/METI), Informal links of Iron Triangle| Keiretsu, big business (Iron Triangle w/ elected politicians)| LDP, Democratic Party| Isolation and Emulation vs. Outside Emulation and Internal Innovation, Conservatism, Harmony, Collective Identity, Hierarchy, Strong state – weak society| Russia| Late| PM (President)| Direct popular election| Duma (Federation Council)|...
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