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Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration
(CCS): An effective Solution for Combating Global
Warming in the Future.

Tomocene João Tomocene

Petroleum Engineering Department
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Bandar Seri Iskandar
31750 Tronoh
Perak Darul Ridzuan


The earth surface has been threatened by the increase in its average temperature, the unpredictability of its geological and meteorological phenomena with reference to the climate change, for years. The anthropogenic mega-activities whereby their main source of energy is the fossil fuels, the main emitters of the greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as the carbon dioxide (CO2). These gases are the main cause of global warming. Through statistics, it is shown that the large-scale CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are worsening day by day, so putting the earth on the verge of a massive global climate change chiefly portrayed by the global warming. Though fossil fuels are the major sources of CO2, they account for large part of global energy, making its immediate replacement by alternative sources a global issue. The carbon dioxide capture and sequestration (CCS) in geological formations such as saline aquifers(for permanent storage), and mainly in depleted oil and gas reservoirs has been identified as the best solution for bringing up revenues and giving place to alternative sources of energy and combating the global warming by reducing CO2 emissions.

Keywords: Global warming, Greenhouse gases (GHGs), Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS).



Global warming has become the most
concerning phenomenon to the modern
scientific community. The increase in the
greenhouse gases emission like water vapor,
carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4),
nitrous oxides (NOx) and others into the
atmosphere is causing the earth‟s capability
to keep its temperature constant to change.
However, the inventory of GHGs in the
atmosphere consist of, almost entirely, of
CO2 with concentrations of approximately
388ppm or 0.04% by volume in 2010 [1],
which makes CO2 a global issue. The studies
show that the global emissions of CO2 rose
3.2 % from 2009 to 2010 [2], being 5.9% rise
in 2010 alone representing a half-billion
extra tons of CO2 emissions to the
atmosphere, which is almost certainly the
largest jump in any year since the preindustrial , and largest percentage increase since 2003 [3]. The fact that CO2 is the main
GHG causing global warming [4], is the core
driving force to
investigation and
technologies as well as the rely on the
alternative sources of energy that release
almost no CO2. The alternative sources of
energy such as hydroelectric, tidal energy,
geothermal power, wind power, solar power,
nuclear power, biomass in place of fossil
fuels like coal, oil and natural gas could be
used with the aim of reducing the
concentrations of CO2 in the terrestrial
atmosphere [5]. A quick shift from fossil
sources of energy to alternative sources will
be difficult to a very high degree. Therefore,
carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power
plants and industries, followed by its
sequestration, is one of the most effective
technologies whose rationale is to enable the
use of fossil fuels while reducing the
emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere, and
thereby mitigating global warming. The CO2
storage can be permanent or injected in

depleted oil and gas formations whereby the
oil and gas are displaced so to boost the well
productivity in a process known as Enhanced
Oil Recovery (EOR) [6]. As reported by Jae
Edmonds (Chief Scientist, Joint Global
Change Research Institute) in the keynote
address at 9th International Conference on
Greenhouse Gases Control Technologies
(GHDT-9, November 2008), “preparations
for the IPCC 5th Assessment Report have
indicated that meeting low carbon
stabilization limits is only...
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