American History /Donat
History and researchers of medicine during WWll
Within in the “chain of evacuation” established by the army medical department during the war, nurses served under fire in the field hospitals and evacuation hospitals, on hospital trains and hospital ships, and as flight nurses on medical transport planes. The skill and dedication of these nurses contributed to the extremely low post-injury mortality rate among American military forces in every theater of the war. But the low post-injury mortality rate wasn’t just due to the extremely dedicated nurses. It was also due to the great discoveries by many medical scientist. Over all, fewer than 4 percent of the American soldiers who received medical care in the field or underwent evacuation died from wounds or disease. Many of the soldiers were saved due to the discovery Sulfanilamide to cure bacterial diseases and, Penicillin to fight the bacteria. And the use of atabrine to fight malaria, the use of plasma to save soldiers from blood clots and bleeding to death, and morphine used as a pain killer,
The Discovery of Sulfanilamide, Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk a German biochemist, whose research with antibacterial chemicals resulted in the discovery of a new class of drugs that provided the first effective treatments for pneumonia, meningitis, and other bacterial diseases. Domagk’s research involved analyzing thousands of chemicals for their antibacterial properties. In 1932 he tested a red dye, Prontosil. The dye itself had no antibacterial properties, but when Domagk slightly changed its chemical makeup, Prontosil showed a remarkable ability to arrest infections in mice caused by streptococcal bacteria. Domagk tested the drug on his daughter, who was near death from a streptococcal infection and had failed to respond to other treatments. She made a complete recovery. After Domagk published his findings in 1935, doctors found that Prontosil could control many bacterial infections. other researchers developed derivatives based on the Prontosil sulfonamide group. The resulting so-called sulfa drugs revolutionized medicine and saved many thousands of lives. SULFANILAMIDE, first used in 1936, was the eldest of the SULFONAMIDE family of drugs that are still extremely useful today. Dramatic proof of the effectiveness of this new agent was provided during an outbreak of meningitis in the French Foreign Legion in Nigeria. While sulfanilamide was available, there was an 11% mortality rate. After the supply was exhausted, mortality climbed to 75%. Sulfanilamide and its derivatives, which soon followed, were said to have "dethroned the captain of the men of death," such was their effectiveness in treating pneumonia. The discovery of Sulfanilamide greatly affected the mortality rate during World War II. American soldiers were taught to immediately sprinkle sulfa powder on any open wound to prevent infection. Every soldier was issued a first aid pouch that was designed to be attached to the soldier’s waist belt. The first aid pouch contained a package of sulfa powder and a bandage to dress the wound. One of the main components carried by a combat medic during World War II was sulfa powder and sulfa tablets. The Discovery of Penicillin, The Scottish bacteriologist Sir Alexander Flemin discovered penicillin. In 1906, Fleming received his medical degree from St. Mary's Hospital in London. During World War I he began experimenting with antibacterial substances and in 1921 discovered lysozyme, an antibiotic enzyme that attacks many types of bacteria. .In 1928, Fleming discovered the germ-killing properties of the "mold juice" secreted by penicillium, he knew that it could have very important d medical value. But Fleming could not make enough penicillin to be useful in practice, and his discovery was dismissed as no more than a laboratory curiosity. Ten years later, a team of scientists at Oxford University...