Proposal submitted to
Faculty of Science and Technology
Lalitpur Valley College (LVC)
Submitted by- MANJEET SHRESTHA
B. tech 4th year
Ginger is one of the oldest spices to be supposed native to South East Asia, but like many other tropical plant of the economic importance, its exact origin is uncertain. It is mentioned in early literature of China and India. The adventure, Marco Polo, in recording to his travels during the 13th and 14th century, noted that ginger was being cultivated in South China and Malabar Coast of India (Leverington, 1983).
According to available historical records, the use of ginger in east was as spice and medicine. In Ayurveda, as craminative and stimulant. It is given in dyspepsia and flatulent colic. It is said to be an essential adjunct in all Ayurvedic preparation (Govindrajan, 1982). The use of ginger in Southern Europe was in ancient Greece and the spices from the east passed through the hands of traders via Red sea. The Roman, likewise, obtained ginger and other spices through the Rea sea trading posts. While serving in the Roman army under Nero, the Greek military surgeon, Nioscordes (A.D 40 to A.D 90), ascribed certain beneficial effects in his celebrated Materia Medica.
Sills (1961) and Guenther (1952) reported that the Spainards took ginger to Mexico and West Indies in the 16th century, and by 1547, the spices was reported been from those areas to Europe.
Ginger belongs to Zingiberaceae Family which consists of 47 genera. The genus Zingiber consists of 80-90 species, among them officinale is the cultivated one (exception Zingiber mioga, Japanese ginger) (Borget, 1989). It is perennial, monocotyledon, herbaceous plant producing buff colored, fibrous and underground branching rhizomes in palamate patterns (Leverington, 1983). The rhizome produce erect and slender stems which can grow to height of 2-3 feet are covered with sheathing leaf bases. The leaves are alternate, light green in color, smooth, sessile and may be lanceolate or linear lanceolate. Each blade has a well developed central rib. The size of leaf is 15-20 com long and 2-3 cm wide and it is strongly pointed and tends to fold inwards (Lawerebce, 1984).
Composition of Ginger
The ginger rhizome contains a mixture of an essential oil, a fixed oil, pungent compounds, starch and others saccharides, proteins, cellulose, waxes, coloring matter, trace minerals etc. Chemical composition of ginger varies with varieties, climatic condition, soil condition, fertilizer uses. Further there is a great effect of maturity, handling, storage, drying and other processing methods on the chemical composition of ginger. The chemical composition of green ginger is given in table below
COMPOSITION OF GINGER PER 100g EDIBLE PORTION
Protein (g) 2.3
Niacin (mg) 0.6
Riboflavin (mg) 0.03
Ascorbic acid (mg)6.0
SOURCE: Watt and Merril (1975)
Ginger production in Nepal
Ginger is one of the important spices as well medicinal plants in the country. It is becoming the major cash crop of the mid hills farmers. Salyan, Palpa, Tanahu, Syanja, Kaski, Makwanpur, Bhojpur and Illam are the leading districts for ginger cultivation. The total area and the cultivation of ginger(1995/96) is estimated as to be 6082(hectors) and 64703(metric ton) respectively. It has been estimated that 60% of the total production is exported to India in the farm of fresh or dry ginger and remaining 40% is used locally for seed and for confectionery purposes (GRP/NARC/1997).
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