FEDERAL CAPITAL ABUJA
PEOPLE, POPULATION AND SETTLEMENT
PROSPECT FOR THE FUTURE
NATURAL RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
Geology: The FCT is almost predominantly underlain by high grade metamorphic and igneous rocks of precambrian age.
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Generally trending NNESSW, these rocks consist of gneiss, migmatites and granites. A schist belt outcrops along the eastern margin of the area. The belt broadens southwards and attains a maximum development to the southeastern sector of the area where the topography is rugged and the relief is high. In general, the rocks are highly sheared (Kogbe, 1978). The rocks of the area can be divided into five major groups, as follows: Metamorphosed Supracrustal (Exogenetic) Rocks: Mica Schist (sh), Marble (m), Amphibolite and Amphibole Schist (a), FineMedium Grained Gnesis.Migmatitic Complex: Migmatite (mi), Migmatitic Gneiss (mg), Granite Gneiss (gg), Porphyroblastic GraniteGneiss (pg), Leucocratic GraniteGneiss (lg) . Intrusive GraniteCoarse Grained Granite (eg) . Minor Intrusions: Rhyolites (ry), QuartzFeldspar Porphyry (py), Daca titea and Anddesites (an), Dolerites and Basalts (b) .Other Formations: Quartzite (qz), Pegmatite (p), Quartz vein (q)Relief: The lowest elevation in the Federal Capital territory is found in the extreme southwest where the flood plain of the river
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Guraja is at an ele vation of about 70m above sea level. From there, the land rises irregularly eastwards, northwards and northwestwards. The highest part of the territory is in the northeast where there are many peaks over 760m above sea level. Hills occur either as clusters or form long ranges. The most prominent of these include the Gawa range in the northeast, the Gurfata range southwest of Suleja, the BwariAso range in the northeast, the Idon Kasa range north west of Kuje and the Wuna range north of Gwagwalada. Elsewhere in the territory, there are many rather roundish isolated hills usually called inselbergs. Inbetween the major hills are exten sive plains, the most important of which are the Gwagwa plains, the lkuGurara plains, the Robo plains and the Rubochi plains. Indeed, about fifty two per cent of the Federal Capital Territory con sists of plains. Out of these plains, the Gwagwa plain was selected for the building of the Federal Capital city (FCC).Climate: The FCT has two main seasons, rainy (April to October) and dry (November to March). The high altitude and undulating terrain of the territory act to provide a regulating influence on its weather. During the dry season, the typical month being March, the temperature varies between 30Â°C in the northeast to about 37Â°C in the southwest.
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This period is characterised by high diurnal ranges when drops of as high as 17Â°C may be recorded between the highest and lowest temperatures in a day. During the rainy season, temperatures drop considerably due to dense cloud cover. The annual range also drop to around 7Â°C, especially between July and August. The Federal Capital Territory records relative humidity, in the dry season, of some 20 per cent in the afternoon at higher elevations and at more northern locations but about 30 percent in the extreme south. This rather low relative humidity, coupled with the high afternoon temperatures, account for the desiccating effect of the dry season which is also marked by the presence of the har mattan haze. During the rainy season, the after noon relative humidity rises everywhere to above fifty percent. In terms of physiological comfort, the high relative humidity in the extreme south of the Territory gives the area a heat trap effect which makes it uncomfortably hot.For maximum human comfort, northern locations are better, especially locations to the northeast where the FCC is being built. Rainfall in the FCT starts from about March in the southernmost part of the territory,...
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