Geography of India

Topics: India, Western Ghats, Geography of India Pages: 9 (1642 words) Published: February 19, 2013




The Indian peninsula is separated from mainland Asia by the Himalayas. The Country is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south.

Geographic Coordinates

Lying entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, the Country extends between 8° 4' and 37° 6' latitudes north of the Equator, and 68° 7' and 97° 25' longitudes east of it.

Indian Standard Time
Border Countries


GMT + 05:30
3.3 Million sq. km
Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west; China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north; Myanmar to the east; and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea, formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar. 7,516.6 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.


The climate of India can broadly be classified as a tropical monsoon one. But, in spite of much of the northern part of India lying beyond the tropical zone, the entire country has a tropical climate marked by relatively high temperatures and dry winters. There are four seasons: i.winter (December-February)

ii.summer (March-June)
iii.south-west monsoon season (June-September) monsoon season (October-November)


The mainland comprises of four regions, namely the great mountain zone, plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region, and the southern peninsula.

Natural Resources

Coal, iron ore, manganese ore, mica, bauxite, petroleum, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, magnesite, limestone, arable land, dolomite, barytes, kaolin, gypsum, apatite, phosphorite, steatite, fluorite, etc.

Natural Hazards
Environment - Current
Geography – Note

Monsoon floods, flash floods, earthquakes, droughts, and landslides. Air pollution control, energy conservation, solid waste management, oil and gas conservation, forest conservation, etc.
India occupies a major portion of the south Asian subcontinent.

Geological development

India is entirely contained on the Indian Plate, a
major tectonic plate that was formed when it split
off from the ancient continent Gondwana
land (ancient landmass, consisting of the
southern part of the supercontinent of Pangea).
About 90 million years ago, the Indian Plate
began moving north at about 15 cm/year (6
in/yr). About 50 to 55 million years ago,the plate
collided with Asia after covering a distance of
2,000 to 3,000 km (1,243 to 1,864 mi), having
moved faster than any other known plate. The
collision with the Eurasian Plate along the
modern border between India and Nepal formed
the orogenic belt that created the Tibetan Plateau
and the Himalayas. As of 2009, the Indian Plate is
moving northeast at 5 cm/yr (2 in/yr), while the
Eurasian Plate is moving north at only 2 cm/yr
(0.8 in/yr). India is thus referred to as the "fastest
continent". This is causing the Eurasian Plate to
deform, and the Indian Plate to compress at a rate
of 4 mm/yr (0.15 in/yr).

Political geography
India is divided into
twenty-eight states
(further subdivided
into districts) and seven
union territories.

Physiographic regions
Physiographic regions

The Himalayan

Northern Plains
The Great
Indian Desert
The Peninsular
Coastal Plains


Another method divides India into five
physiographic regions: The Himalayas, northern
plains (the Indo-Gangetic plain), peninsular region,
coastal plains, and islands

1. Mountains
A great arc of mountains,
consisting of
the Himalayas, Hindu Kush,
and Patkai ranges define the
northern Indian subcontinent.
These were formed by
the ongoing tectonic
collision of the Indian Plate
with the Eurasian Plate. The
mountains in these ranges
include some of the world's
tallest mountains which act as
a natural barrier to cold polar
winds. They also facilitate
the monsoon...
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