• Comes from the root words : “psyche”, or mind, and “logos”, or study (Boring, 1950) • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes (Atkinson, 2000) • Is an objective and systematic study of how people behave and think • Its’ goals are to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processes. Psychologists are interested to find answers to questions like the following: ▪ What part of the brain is responsible for language?
▪ What crises do adolescents experience?
▪ Why do we forget?
▪ Why do we need help?
▪ What factors influence attraction to another person? ▪ How can we control aggression?
▪ Is fear of spiders abnormal?
▪ How did I learn to study?
Behavior – responses and reactions of the individuals, whether observable by other or not.
Thus, behavior is further described as:
Overt- behavior which is observed by other people
Example: manifested actions or reactions of an individual Covert- behavior which is known only to the individual experiencing it, like his thoughts and feelings which are not outwardly manifested. Example: when a person whose anger may b observed from his facial expressions and actions overtly. However, the bodily changes he is experiencing within him are observed only by him.
Behavior is also classified as:
Conscious- behavioral reactions and processes that we are aware of. Unconscious- behavior are those mental processes and body reactions that we are not aware of. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
Psychology has its roots in many discipline, dating back to the view of early Greek Philosophers (i.e. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle) who studied the nature of the mind, the soul, the body, and Human experience (Myers, 1986). 17th Century
Rene Descartes- supported the nativist view- that some ideas are innate John Locke- advocated empiricist view that knowledge is acquired through experiences and interactions in the world. 18th Century-NATURE V/S NURTURE Debate
Wilhelm Wundt- father of Psychology
- founded Psychology as an academic discipline in 1879.
- He established the first Psychological Laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany.
- His research was primarily concerned with the senses, especially vision, but he also studied attention, emotion, and memory. Granville Stanley Hall –who had studied with Wundt
-was the first American to finish Doctoral studies in Psychology. -1883, he established the first psychology Laboratory in the US at John Hopkins University. -He founded the first American journal of Psychology.
James Mekeen Cattell – another Wundt student.
-first psychology professor in the US in 1888.
-known for designing a personality test, the sixteen (16) Personality (Test) Factor Questionnaire (16 PF). Sir Francis Galton (England) – studied individual differences leading the development of intelligence tests. 19th Century
Titchener, a Wundt- trained psychologist- introduced the term Structuralism that specified mental structures and analyzed the basis elements of mental life (Davis and Palladino 1995). Introspection (literally, looking inside), the examination of one’s own emotional states and mental processes, was the structural psychologists’ major method of data collection (Myers, 1986) Example: a person would report the sensations of drinking calamansi juice (Dallarosa, 1988). HISTORY of Psychology in the PHILIPPINES
- as early as 17th Century- Psychology was taught in:
1. University of Santo Tomas in Manila
2. University of San Carlos in Cebu
1926- first department of Psychology was established at the University of the Philippines- School of Education.
Agustin Alonzo – Ph. D in Experimental Psychology (University of Chicago), became the head of the country’s first Department of Psychology. UST- first institution to offer undergraduate, Master’s and Doctoral degrees in Psychology.
From 1928 – 1961, the...