General Conclusion

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General Conclusion:
These experiments helped us understand the importance of molecular polarity. This knowledge can now be used for the future to predict, for example, if two substances will mix or not. We can now do this by knowing that polar substances only mix with other polar substances, while non-polar substances only mix with other non-polar substances. This concept can be used to predict if a substance will be soluble in a specific solvent. The concepts of solubility and conductivity of a substance were studied as well in this experiment helping us understand how the various molecules and its ions react in solvents. An example of this process is when calcium chloride dissolved in water. The polar water molecules attracted the oppositely charged Ca2+ and Cl- ions as calcium chloride is a polar molecule as well. The ions brake apart as the water attraction is greater than the ionic bond within the calcium chloride molecule. Solubility is also important for conductivity as some elements such as calcium chloride do not conduct in a solid state. This explains why calcium chloride conducted when dissolved in water and ethanol, but didn’t in hexane as it did not dissolve. Hence, the last concept faced in this experiment was the movement of ions or electrons which determine conductivity. In some conductivity results in table 7, a couple of results were extremely odd as no free electrons should have been present (see evaluation).


Precision was not fundamental for this lab but most, if not all the 7 experiments had possible limitations and sources of error which might have affected the data results/analysis. The distilled water apparently absorbed ions present in the surrounding atmosphere (see conductivity experiment). In the first experiment a possible source of error was the force of the water, ethanol or hexane streams. If one stream flows more strongly than the other, the bending movement towards the charged rod might be compromised,...
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