Gender approach, gender analysis and consideration of gender- sensitive indicators are required for developing gender-sensitive programs and achieving the goals of gender equity and equality. I. Definitions of gender blindness, equality, equity and bias. II. The most important events in evolution of gender and development approaches. III. The role of gender analysis in gender mainstreaming. IV. Examples of gender sensitive indicators.
V. GDP as a gender blind indicator.
VI. Plan for reducing prevalence of male patients at STD clinics. VII. Gender-sensitive advocacy plan.
VIII. Difference between a network and coalition in the context of advocacy.
Gender approach, gender analysis and consideration of gender- sensitive indicators are required for developing gender-sensitive programs and achieving the goals of gender equity and equality. The approach ignoring the social and economic differences between men and women is considered to be gender blind. A comprehensive analysis of the country’s economics is impossible without considering this significant aspect. Gender perspective needs to be applied to economics analysis of the rate of women’s unemployment in developing countries, for example. Terms of gender equality and equity have got similar meanings. Thus, gender equality means equal rights for both men and women, while gender equity denotes fairness in distribution of men’s and women’s responsibilities. For example, men and women can have a claim on the same executive post. Still, most managers are men, while women are expected to be under their ferule. The majority of employers would give preference to male specialists because they will not need maternity leaves. This phenomenon of favouring men over women is called gender bias.
First Conference on Women held in Mexico in 1975 was a significant step forward. The main objective of the meeting was women’s full integration into the society development. The second Conference on Women was held in Copenhagen in 1980, the third – in Nairobi in 1985. The questions of women’s’ equal footing with men were raised at these meetings. Nairobi conference indicated a shift to gender perspective in economics analysis, considering the difference between women and men within various spheres of life. Gender questions were discussed at a number of UN meetings in 1990s. Human rights conference in 1993 coined the concept of reproductive rights as human rights. The evolution of understanding presupposed the shift of emphasis from statistic and medical aspects to accepting the differences between genders and providing equal rights and opportunities in various spheres of life.
The term gender mainstreaming denotes the strategies aimed at achieving the goal of gender equality. It presupposes shift to the gender perspective an accepting the existing differences in men’s and women’s opportunities. Other ways for reaching the goal are taking into consideration gender relations, changing the current legislation concerning the problem and gender analysis. Gender analysis consists of investigation of the nature of differences and establishing of the cause-and-effect relations between gender differences and inequality. Knowing the roots of the problem, it would be easier to look for its solutions. For this reason, gender analysis may be regarded an integral part of gender mainstreaming. It is helpful for defining the socio-cultural variables and following manipulating them.
A gender-sensitive indicator denotes qualitative or quantitative measurements of changes in gender-related spheres in the course of time. This testing is helpful for monitoring the differences between men and women arising from their gender roles. The latest measurements indicated decreasing the gender gap. The United Nations Organization conducts...