Gendar Bias

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Gender Differences in Academic Achievement
Lashear C. Price
Cleveland State University

Author Note
Lashear C. Price, Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University.
Address Correspondence to: Lashear C. Price, Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44115. E- mail: lashear_07@yahoo.com Abstract
In recent years, researchers have debated whether social bias exists between boys and girls regarding social skills and academic achievement. While most studies have shown that girls are more intelligent and experience fewer social problems than boys, the current study will hope to find otherwise. Many articles have been reviewed to see if there is a difference between boys and girls on academic achievement tests and social skills. Results supported the idea that both boys and girls score high on academic and standardize tests.

Gender Differences in Academic Achievement
Gender differences in academic achievement have been around for years. Numerous studies have examined the relationship between boys’ and girls’ academic achievement on standardize tests, reading skills, verbal and spatial skills, and mathematic tests. Most studies have shown that, on average girls do better in school than boys. Girls score higher and get better grades and have better social skills than boys. The following articles presented below will show that both boys and girls outperform each other on certain standardized tests. However, there were not significant results to prove one gender outperformed the other on all standardized tests. A research done by Abdi (2010) studied gender differences on social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competences on kindergarten children. Abdi (2010) obtain 292 girls, 318 boys, 610 parents, and 228 teachers in her experiment. The parents and teachers rated the social behaviors of students by using a rating scaled called the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). This particular test rated the child’s internalizing problems (behaviors that direct problematic energy towards the self), externalizing problems (behaviors that direct problematic energy outwards), hyperactivity subdomains, and academic competence. The results from Abdi (2010) studied showed that according to parents and teachers, girls scored higher than boys on all subscales of social skills (except self-control). Girls also outscored boys on academic competences; however there were no sex differences according to teachers between girls and boys on internalizing. Boys did score higher than girls on externalizing and hyperactivity behavior problems, which is considered, not a good rating to have. Overall, Abdi (2010) study showed some bias against boys in regards to behavior problems and social skills on academic achievement, because boys scored higher on externalizing and hyperactivities behavior problems.
Mallinauskiene, Vosylis, and Zukauskiene’s (2011) study supports the previous study in girls scoring better than boys on academic achievement and standardize tests. Their study examined the relationship between internalizing self-report problem behavior syndrome (anxiety/depression, delinquent behavior, aggressive behavior, and somatic complaints) and mean measures of academic achievement (reading & spelling, and arithmetic performance). Mallinauskiene, et al. (2011) studied adjustment problems from childhood to adolescence. There were a total of 136 boys and 162 girls in grades six through eight. Participants completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR) scale that measured their own behavior in eight problem areas. The areas on the scale consisted of withdrawn, somatic complaints, anxious/depressed, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent, and aggressive behaviors. There were three summary scales calculated for total problems, internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Results from the...
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