Gem Report

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Introduction:
The GEM research program is an annual assessment of the national level of entrepreneurial ac-tivity. Our group has chosen two reports: one is Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2011 Report for Belgium which is posted on January 2013; the other one is Global Entrepreneurship monitor National Entrepreneurial Assessment for the United States of America which is the report of USA during 2011.There is many differences in entrepreneurial capacity of these two countries. Our group will talk about the differences of these two countries with the reference to theory and the Global Competitiveness Index. Entrepreneurship is increasingly at the forefront in economic policy. There is a widely asserted positive influence of entrepreneurship on economic progress through its stimulating influence on innovation, competition and industry dynamics .So from the beginning, let’s see the background of these two countries. First it comes to Belgium. Belgium is participating in GEM since 2001. In 2011 a representative sample of the general population of 18 years and older was ensured and a telephone survey (fixed line via national telephone directory and mobile via random digital dialing) was conducted covering 1852 individuals for Belgium (of which 1077 in Flanders), within the age range of 18-64.6 .Respondent selection within a household was based on the next birthday method. This implies that after contacting a household, the person to be interviewed is the adult person in the household whose birthday is closest. In case this person is not available at the first contact with the household, new attempts are scheduled up to five of such ‘call backs’. Then let’s see the background of USA. During the summer of 2011, the United States participated in the 13th annual cycle of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) research. Across the globe, 54 economies participated in the survey, spanning diverse geographies and a range of development levels. In the United States over 5,800 adults between the ages of 18 and 99 were interviewed. The results suggest that entrepreneurship in the United States experienced a turnaround in 2011, after two years of decline during the economic downturn. The survey revealed that 12.3% of working age adults (18–64 years of age) were starting or running new businesses during 2011, an estimated 29 million people. This represents an over 60% jump in the U.S. entrepreneurship rate from 2010. A confident and ambitious group, nearly 40% of these entrepreneurs anticipates adding five or more employees over the next five years. From the above we can see that both Belgium and USA participated in the GEM and have made two big researches. There are thousands of people to be questioned. So we can have clear acquaints of the entrepreneurial activity.

Twelve aspects of entrepreneurial:
If we want to compare entrepreneurial activity of these two countries, we have to compare them from twelve aspects. They are institutions aspect, infrastructure aspect, macroeconomic stability aspect, health and primary education aspect, higher education and training aspect; goods market efficiency aspect, labor market efficiency aspect, financial market sophistication aspect, techno-logical readiness aspect, market size aspect, business sophistication aspect and innovation aspect. These 12 aspects can well define the entrepreneurial activity of the two countries. We will find these 12 aspects from different data. First, the report tells the national attitude or social attitude of these countries towards entrepreneurial activity. The GEM Adult population Survey provides three relevant questions to the Belgians: ‐ In Belgium, starting a business is considered as a good career choice? ‐ In Belgium, persons growing a successful business receive a high status? ‐ In Belgium, there is lots of media coverage for new businesses? We should note that all individuals in the Belgian sample answered these questions for Belgium as a country. However,...
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