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  • Topic: Islamic calendar, Muhammad, Husayn ibn Ali
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Submitted To: NAUMAN BIN ARIF
Submitted By : SHAJEE AHMED &
AZIZ UR REHMAN
ID:111820142 && 111820229
Section : X
ASSIGNMENT No : 3

INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS

The Islamic calendar, Muslim calendar or Hijri calendar AH is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days. Being a purely lunar calendar, it is not synchronized with the seasons. With an annual drift of 10 or 11 days, the seasonal relation repeats about every 33 Islamic years every 32 solar years. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries concurrently with the Gregorian calendar, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper days on which to observe the annual fast), to attend Hajj, and to celebrate other Islamic holidays and festivals. The first year was the Islamic year beginning in AD 622 during which the emigration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra, occurred. Each numbered year is designated either H for Hijra or AH for the Latin anno Hegirae in the year of the Hijra hence, Muslims typically call their calendar the Hijri calendar. The current Islamic year is 1434 AH. In the Gregorian calendar 1434 AH runs from approximately 14 November 2012 to 4 November 2013 evening.

MONTHS:
Four of the twelve Hijri months are considered sacred, although there is disagreement over the designated months, such as between proponents for the sequences {7,11,12,1} vs. {12,1,2,3}.The twelve Hijri months are named as follows in Arabic: * Muḥarram — المحرّم, "forbidden" — so called because it was unlawful (haram) to fight during this month. Muharram includes the Day of Ashura. * Ṣafar — صفر, "void" — supposedly named because pagan Arabs looted during this month and left the houses empty. * Rabīʿ I (Rabīʿ al-Awwal) — ربيع الأوّل, "the first spring". * Rabīʿ II (Rabīʿ ath-Thānī or Rabīʿ al-Ākhir) — ربيع الثاني or ربيع الآخر, "the second (or last) spring". * Jumādā I (Jumādā al-Ūlā) — جمادى الأولى, "the first month of parched land". Often considered the pre-Islamic "summer". * Jumādā II (Jumādā ath-Thāniya or Jumādā al-Ākhira) — جمادى الثانية or جمادى الآخرة, "the second (or last) month of parched land". * Rajab — رجب, "respect" or "honor". This is another sacred month in which fighting was traditionally forbidden. * Shaʿbān — شعبان, "scattered", marking the time of year when Arab tribes dispersed to find water. * Ramaḍān — رمضان, "scorched". Ramadan is the most venerated month of the Hijri calendar during which Muslims must fast between dawn and sunset. * Shawwāl — شوّال, "raised", as she-camels normally would be carrying a fetus at this time of year. * Dhū al-Qaʿda — ذو القعدة, "the one of truce". Dhu al-Qa'da was another month during which war was banned. * Dhū al-Ḥijja — ذو الحجّة, "the one of pilgrimage", referring to the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the Hajj.

History:
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Pre-Islamic calendar
Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these calendars followed the lunisolar system. For Central Arabia, especially Mecca, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era. Both al-Biruni and al-Mas'udi suggest that the Ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims. The Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that the Arabs of Ḥijāz distinguished between two types of months, permitted (ḥalāl) and forbidden (ḥarām) months. The forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the pilgrimage season, Dhū al-Qiʿda, Dhū al-Ḥijja, and Muḥarram. Information about the forbidden months is also found in the writings of Procopius, where he describes an armistice with the Eastern Arabs of the Lakhmid al-Mundhir which happened in the summer of 541 AD. However, Muslim historians do not link these months to a particular season. The Qur'an links the four...
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