of robust autonomous vehicles, real-time wireless control of hundreds of moving vehicles, the coordination of these vehicles, and the various algorithms that allow the system to adapt and reconﬁgure itself based on the environment and operating conditions. In the second part of this paper we will outline various technological innovations that would increase the applicability of our approach, either by increasing capabilities or by reducing costs, both of which will make the system more attractive to a wider range of users and applications.
I. I NTRODUCTION
Portion of a Kiva warehouse.
Order fulﬁllment is a multi-billion dollar business. Existing solutions range from the highly automated–whose cost effectiveness is inversely related to their ﬂexibility – to people pushing carts around in warehouses manually ﬁlling orders – which is very ﬂexible but not very cost effective. In the ﬁrst part of this paper we will describe a radical new approach to order fulﬁllment that is both ﬂexible and cost effective. The key idea is to use hundreds of networked, autonomous vehicles that carry inventory storing pods to human operators. The result is a distribution facility that is completely dynamic, selforganizing, and adaptive. The reader is referred to , , and  for more information. Various challenges had to be overcome in order to make this an economically viable system, ranging from design
Fig. 2. A Kiva inventory pod. Items are stored in conﬁgurable shelves, allowing for storage of a wide mix of products.
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II. T HE K IVA M OBILE F ULFILLMENT S YSTEM Kiva uses hundreds of mobile robots and powerful control software to provide a complete fulﬁllment solution: storing, moving and sorting inventory. Instead of being stored in static shelving, ﬂow racks or carousels, products are stored in inventory pods in the center of the warehouse while operators stand at inventory stations around the perimeter. When an order is received, robotic drive units retrieve the appropriate pods and bring them to the worker, who picks out the appropriate item and places it in the carton. Completed orders are stored on separate pods, ready to get up and move to the loading dock when the truck arrives.
ensure that the system is robust to changes in the environment.
Fig. 4. Simulation environment used to design and validate an installation before deployment.
Fig. 5. Mezzanines and elevators can be used to build out a warehouse vertically.
Fig. 3. A Kiva drive unit rotating underneath the lifting device, which is counter-rotating relative to drive unit, and thus not moving relative to the ﬂoor.
The Kiva Mobile Fulﬁllment System (Kiva MFS) has many advantages over existing solutions, which lead to increased productivity, lower cost, and increased ﬂexibility. Some of the key features are outlined below: Fast Picking: The operator is presented with a new pick face location every six seconds, as if they had inﬁnite pick face density with zero walking. Rapid Installation: Starting with blank concrete or mezzanine and a few electrical outlets,...