February 25, 2011
Fundamentals of Research Methodology
In the world individual are living today, information and, research are easy to gain through many sources. Just by a touch of a button individual can gain access to studies and investigate any given topic. Scientific method, on the other hand it is hard to study psychology. In this paper I am going to discuss science of psychology, also explain the scientific method, distinguish between qualitative and quantitative data, and explain the process of scientific theory construction and testing (Class Syllabus Psych 540) Science of Psychology
According to the reading text for this week; Psychology is the development of theories and psychology research. Psychologist used this method to answer question about individual behavior and mental process. This type of process can affect individual and society (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2009) Scientific Method
Scientific Method describe in this week text, refer to as the means to gain knowledge, and the way the question are asked, the logic and method used to gain the answer (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2009). Empirical approach and skeptical attitude according to researchers are two important characteristics present in scientific method (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2009). Scientific method can be distinguished from different approach, but all come down to the same direction “the Truth.” Empirical approach depend on the observation and experiment directly when answering question, and developing science of psychology (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2009). Researchers used the scientific method when studying human nature, to record, treat, and observe human behavior that consider unnatural. Researcher’s thinks scientific manner would be a good help in studying people to gain a better understanding of the individual present behavior, also able to predict the individual future, and change behavior through scientific method. Scientific method relies on empirical process instead of depending on intuition, also hold the investigation fact responsible for phenomenon (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2009). Most of the time scientific method can observe and record physical data well, also gather information to confirm or non-conform theory. Scientist, over the time used scientific method collectively to give accurate result of the world. According to Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, and Zechmeister, (2009) “four goals was used for scientific method by researchers, there are description, prediction, explanation, and application” (p. 41). When an experiment shows out hypothesis result, most of the time it is considers a theory by researchers. When the experiment does not show hypothesis result, the experiment should be modified. This example is a scientific method of prediction of the hypothesis. Scientist predicts that theories can only be disproved. Method has been describing as the simplest and logical; because there is no question other than how the individual find the result he or she wanted to know on things. Researches has separate science from others sources of explanation because of the systematic experimentation that require (Simonton, 2009) Qualitative and Quantitative Data
Social science contains two methodological sources, quantitative, and qualitative methods. Quantitative and qualitative follow two different directions toward fundamentals relationship on idea and evidence. Quantitative research plays an essential role in research. Qualitative research search through the processes on supporting human behavior base on case study, interviews, personal techniques, and surveys (Salkind, 2009).
The main reason of this research is to look at human behavior through culture, political, and social sources that take place. Qualitative research on a non-experimental part can be powerful and...