A.The nature of dialogue
The clause is also organized as an interactive event involving speaker, or writer, and audience. Let us use the term ‘speaker’ as a cover term for both speaker and writer. In the act of speaking, the speaker adopts for himself a particular speech role, and in so doing assigns to the listener a complementary role which he wishes him to adopt in his turn (see Halliday, 1984a;Martin, 1992: Chapter 2). For example, in asking a question, a speaker is taking on the role of seeker of information and requiring the listener to take on the role of supplier of the information demanded. The most fundamental types of speech role, which lie behind all the more speciﬁc types that we may eventually be able to recognize, are just two. First is giving and the second is demanding. Either the speaker is giving something to the listener or he is demanding something from him. Giving it means that the speaker is giving something (information) to the listener and demanding it means that the speaker is demanding something from the listener. Example: (conversation by telephone)
A : I’ve just came from your home to take my book exercise, but you aren’t there? B : are you sure? I’m in home now!
A : but, your mother said that you aren’t home. And then I come back to my house. B : hmmm, I think my mother was forget that I in my room, because this morning I want to my uncle’s home but I didn’t go there. A : so, do you want to bring my book to my house and let’s do the exercise together? B : ok, never mind. Waiting me for a few minute.
If we say something to someone with the aim of getting us to do something for us or to give you some object. The exchange commodity is strictly non-verbal: what is being demanded is an object or an action, and language is brought in to help the process along. This is an exchange of goods-&-services. But if you say something to me with the aim of getting me to tell you something what is being demanded is...