Freedom: Religion and Equal Opportunity Commission

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A R T I C L E 18
Freedom of religion and belief

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission

ã Commonwealth of Australia 1998.

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Executive Director, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, GPO Box 5218, Sydney NSW 1042.

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry. Article 18 Freedom of religion and belief. Bibliography ISBN 0 642 26959 9 1. Freedom of religion - Australia. 2. Religion and law - Australia. 3. Religious tolerance - Australia. 4. Civil rights - Australia - Religious aspects. I. Australia. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. 291.17720994

Design and layout by Jodey Wills. Printed by J.S. McMillan Pty Ltd.

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission

July 1998

The Hon Daryl Williams AM QC MP Attorney-General Parliament House Canberra ACT 2600

Dear Attorney I present Article 18, the report of the inquiry into freedom of religion and belief in Australia.

Yours sincerely

Chris Sidoti Human Rights Commissioner

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Level 8 Piccadilly Tower 133 Castlereagh Street Sydney NSW 2000 GPO Box 5218 Sydney NSW 1042

Abbreviations
CEDAW CERD Commission CROC ICCPR ILO 111 Religion Declaration Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women 1979 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination 1969 Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966 International Labour Organisation Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention 1958 Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief 1981

Table of Contents
Executive Summary ................................................................................................ iii List of Recommendations ........................................................................................ v 1 The inquiry into religious freedom in Australia ........................................ 1

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
2

Introduction ................................................................................................ The role of the Commission ........................................................................ The review process ..................................................................................... This report ...................................................................................................

1 2 4 6

Freedom of religion and belief .................................................................. 7

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

Introduction ................................................................................................ 7 Freedom of religion and belief in Australian law ......................................... 8 Comparative law ....................................................................................... 14 International human rights law .................................................................. 19 Submissions to the Inquiry ........................................................................ 22 Findings and recommendations ................................................................ 23

3

Religious expression ............................................................................... 29

3.1 3.2

Introduction .............................................................................................. 29 Indigenous heritage protection .................................................................. 30 Findings and recommendations on Indigenous heritage protection...
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