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Cover photos: Seven themes of sustainable forest management Left, top to bottom: Forest biological diversity (M.P. Wilkie); Forest health and vitality (FAO/FO-0506/C. Palmberg Lerche); Productive functions of forest resources (FAO/FO-6960/J. Carle) Centre: Extent of forest resources (M.P. Wilkie) Right, top to bottom: Protective functions of forest resources (M.L. Wilkie); Socio-economic functions of forests (FAO/FO-5154/Veracel); Legal, policy and institutional framework (FAO/24683_1206/G. Napolitano)

Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010
Main report

FAO FORESTRY PAPER

163

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, 2010

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iii

Contents
Acknowledgements Foreword Acronyms and abbreviations Executive summary x xi xii xiii

Chapter 1. Introduction
The reporting framework The scope of FRA 2010 The process The outputs

1
2 3 5 8

Chapter 2. Extent of forest resources
Overview Key findings Key conclusions Forest area and forest area change Forest characteristics Selected forest types and species groups Growing stock Biomass Carbon stock

9
9 10 11 11 23 27 35 41 44

Chapter 3. Forest biological diversity
Overview Key findings Key conclusions Area of primary forests Forest area designated for conservation of biological diversity Area of forest in protected areas Tree species composition

49
49 50 51 52 56 59 62

Chapter 4. Forest health and vitality
Overview Key findings Key conclusions Insects and diseases Forest fires Other disturbances

65
65 66 67 67 74 80

Chapter 5. Productive functions of forest resources
Overview Key findings Key conclusions Areas designated for productive functions Planted forests

85
85 85 86 87 90

iv

Afforestation and reforestation Removals of wood products Removals of non-wood forest products

95 100 103

Chapter 6. Protective functions of forest resources
Overview Key findings Key conclusions Forest area designated for protective purposes

109
109 109 109 110

Chapter 7. Socio-economic functions of forest resources
Overview Key findings Key conclusions Ownership and management rights Public expenditure and revenue collection Value of wood and non-wood forest product removals Employment Area of forest designated for social services

119
119 119 121 121 127 136 143 146

Chapter 8. Legal, policy and institutional framework
Overview Key findings Key conclusions Policy and legal framework Institutional framework Education and research

149
149 149 150 150 154 158

Chapter 9. Progress towards sustainable forest management
Introduction Status of forest management Progress towards sustainable forest management

163
163 163 168...
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