Forensics, by and large, is the application of science to the legal process. It is an emerging research domain in India. There are many different types of forensic sciences baring their vital presence possibly in every field of human endeavor. Of these, let us now discuss about the computational, cyber and the DNA forensics. COMPUTATIONAL FORENSICS:
The development of computational methods or mathematical and software techniques to solve forensic issues is called computational forensics. These methods analyze the evidence beyond human cognitive ability. They scrutinize a large volume of data, which is at any case impossible for a human mind to figure out. In spite of this, we can’t say that these techniques alone would serve our purpose because computational forensics is a field which needs huge collaboration between recognition and reasoning abilities of humans combined with comprehension and analytic abilities of the tool or a machine, which is most of the times, a computer. Computational forensics aids us to model the uncertain. At the crime scenes, we usually get incomplete or broken evidences. These evidences are later on modeled by the computational forensic tool which gives us first clues from its largest biometric database (fingerprints, criminal histories, mug-shots, scar and tattoo, physical characteristics like height, weight, hair and eye color and aliases), which is a collection of significant information regarding the criminals, their criminal history and the nature of crimes committed. It gives possible hints and suggests possible matches of who the suspect is. Computational forensics is not as easy as it seems. It is an intrinsic process whose central themes are accuracy and precision. For example, during finger – print analysis, as finger – prints are invisible to the naked eye, a computational forensic scientist lifts evidences carefully using either powder or ultraviolet illumination, avoiding the possibility of misinterpretation on the part of computer. In this type of cases, they employ techniques such as predicting the core point of finger - print, usually the center in the finger around which the ridges flow. By this, they guess from which part of the finger it came from and thus orient the print for further analysis.
Usually, this sought of examination provides them with three kinds of results namely individualization (where there are strong evidences to confirm the identity of the suspect), exclusion (where they are unlikely to confirm who the suspect is and rely on elimination by which few possibilities are ruled out) and inconclusive (where they are in a dilemma). This categorization is not only limited to computational forensic scientists. These are the areas which any forensic scientist will experience in his life – time. CYBER FORENSICS:
Cyber forensics is also known as computer forensics, which is a kind of digital forensics, or forensic information technology. It is usually the process of extracting lost (or) manipulated data from the computer storage media. They help in maintaining information security and also protect corporate assets. It deals with intensive data analysis. Electronic evidences are fragile and can easily be modified. Additionally, cyber thieves, criminals, and dishonest employees hide, wipe, disguise, cloak, encrypt and destroy evidence from storage media. In order to prevent these and analyze every possibility, cyber forensic scientists collect the content of all servers, personal computers, mobile phones, PDAs (Personal Data / Digital Assistants), printers, copiers, backups, etc. After this, they also collect data from paper documents and surf the net, to connect the dots pertaining to data specified by all these devices. The scope of a forensic analysis can vary from simple information retrieval to reconstructing a series of events. It also investigates a wide variety of crime like child pornography; murder; money...
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