Foreign Direct Investment

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Types of Foreign Direct Investment: An Overview
FDIs can be broadly classified into two types: outward FDIs and inward FDIs. This classification is based on the types of restrictions imposed, and the various prerequisites required for these investments.

An outward-bound FDI is backed by the government against all types of associated risks. This form of FDI is subject to tax incentives as well as disincentives of various forms. Risk coverage provided to the domestic industries and subsidies granted to the local firms stand in the way of outward FDIs, which are also known as “direct investments abroad.”

Different economic factors encourage inward FDIs. These include interest loans, tax breaks, grants, subsidies, and the removal of restrictions and limitations. Factors detrimental to the growth of FDIs include necessities of differential performance and limitations related with ownership patterns.

Other categorizations of FDI exist as well. Vertical Foreign Direct Investment takes place when a multinational corporation owns some shares of a foreign enterprise, which supplies input for it or uses the output produced by the MNC.

Horizontal foreign direct investments happen when a multinational company carries out a similar business operation in different nations.

Foreign Direct Investment is guided by different motives. FDIs that are undertaken to strengthen the existing market structure or explore the opportunities of new markets can be called “market-seeking FDIs.” “Resource-seeking FDIs” are aimed at factors of production which have more operational efficiency than those available in the home country of the investor.

Some foreign direct investments involve the transfer of strategic assets. FDI activities may also be carried out to ensure optimization of available opportunities and economies of scale. In this case, the foreign direct investment is termed as “efficiency-seeking.”

Advantages of FDI

Foreign Direct Investment plays a pivotal role in the development of India's economy. It is an integral part of the global economic system. Advantages of FDI can be enjoyed to full extent through various national policies and international investment architecture. Both the factors contribute enormously to the maximum FDI inflows in India, which stimulates the economic development of the country. An Overview of Advantages of FDI-

Foreign Direct Investment in India is allowed through four basic routes namely, financial collaborations, technical collaborations and joint ventures, capital markets via Euro issues, and private placements or preferential allotments.

FDI inflow helps the developing countries to develop a transparent, broad, and effective policy environment for investment issues as well as, builds human and institutional capacities to execute the same. Benefits of Foreign Direct Investment-

Attracting foreign direct investment has become an integral part of the economic development strategies for India. FDI ensures a huge amount of domestic capital, production level, and employment opportunities in the developing countries, which is a major step towards the economic growth of the country. FDI has been a booming factor that has bolstered the economic life of India, but on the other hand it is also being blamed for ousting domestic inflows. FDI is also claimed to have lowered few regulatory standards in terms of investment patterns. The effects of FDI are by and large transformative. The incorporation of a range of well-composed and relevant policies will boost up the profit ratio from Foreign Direct Investment higher. Some of the biggest advantages of FDI enjoyed by India have been listed as under:

Economic growth- This is one of the major sectors, which is enormously benefited from foreign direct investment. A remarkable inflow of FDI in various industrial units in India has boosted the economic life...
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