Food and Nutrition

Topics: Nutrition, Cooking, Measuring cup Pages: 28 (6487 words) Published: April 7, 2013
Food and Nutrition Exam Study Guide

Kitchen Safety:
* Do not defrost any meats on counter
* Unplug any appliances that are not in use
* Only use oven mittens to remove items from the oven
* Burns should be treated with butter
* When removing a pot lit, tilt the cover away from you
* Keep fingers out of the way when using knives
* Cut with blade facing away from your body
* Sharp knives are safer; you’ll use less pressure when cutting * To get rid of grease fires use baking soda
Kitchen Cleanliness:
* Keep work area clean
* Wipe up spills
* Remove dirty utensils
* Use cleaning utensils and containers
* Never use the same cutting board for raw and cooked meat, poultry, fish or eggs * Utensils can transfer bacteria from raw foods to cooked foods * Never use a dish towel to wipe hands or spills

* Dirty towels may transfer bacteria
* Keep cans clean and dust-free
* Dust and dirt can fall into food when the can in opened * Wash and dry dishes and utensils promptly
* Use hot water and detergent
* Glasses first, then flatware, dishes, pots and pans, and greasy utensils * Air dry or use clean dishtowel
Sanitation Procedures:
* Wash hands before and during lab
* Tie hair back and avoid touching it
* Use different cutting boards for everything to avoid cross contamination * Don’t keep foods or cleaning products under sink
Sanitation Food Preparations:
* Thaw foods properly
* Not on kitchen counter or table
* Refrigerator thawing, microwave thawing and cold water thawing * Do not refreeze foods unless they still contain ice crystals * Do not refreeze ice cream which had thawed
* Use defrosted foods promptly
* Always keep hot foods above 60⁰C (140⁰F)
* Keeps cols foods bellow 4⁰C (40⁰F)
Sanitation in Storage:
* Check thermometers and gaskets in refrigerator and freezer frequently * Door gaskets should be tight
* Keep refrigerator and freezer clean
* Package refrigerated and frozen foods properly
* Use moisture and vapour proof wraps for freezer
* For refrigerator cover fresh meats loosely and store leftovers in tightly covered containers * Refrigerate leftovers promptly and reheat to at least 68⁰C (155⁰F) * Speed up cooling by placing containers of food in an ice water bath Bacteria:

* An integral part of our environment and play many beneficial and some harmful roles * Found in all raw agricultural products
* Harmful bacteria can be transferred from
* Food to people
* Object to object
* Food to food
* Grows rapidly at room temperature
* Can be slowed or stopped by refrigerating or freezing
* Foodborne illness can produce serious systems that occur 30 minutes to two weeks after eating food containing harmful bacteria * Bacteria targets mostly infants, young children, senior citizens and people with weakened immune systems Four Ways to Fight Bacteria:

* Wash hands, utensils and cooking surfaces with soap and hot water before starting to cook * Do this repeatedly while working with other foods
* Sanitize countertops, cutting boards and utensils with a mild bleach and water solution * All produce should be washed under cool water prior to eating or cooking Separate:
* Keep foods like meats and their juices separated from others during storage and preparations * Keep separate cutting boards
* Meats
* vegetables
* Keep foods covered
* Prepare foods fast and cook thoroughly, serve immediately * Don’t let foods stay behind where bacteria can increase/grow * Danger zone is between 4⁰C (40⁰F) and 60⁰C (140⁰F) Chill:
* Refrigerate or freeze perishables, prepared foods or leftovers within 2 hours * Make sure refrigerator is set at a temperature of 4⁰C (40⁰F) or colder, and keep the freezer set at -18⁰C...
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