Fluoride Contamination

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Disaster, Risk and Vulnerablity Conference 2011
School of Environmental Sciences,
Mahatma Gandhi University, India
in association with the
Applied Geoinformatics for Society and Environment, Germany
March 12-14, 2011
Fluoride contamination in groundwater
resources of Chittur block, Palghat district,
Kerala, India - A health risk
Deepu T R and Shaji E
Dept. of Geology, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695 581, India Email: shajigeology@gmail.com

A R T I C L E I N F O
Keywords fluoride
groundwater Palghat
geospatial analyses dental fluorosis

1Introduction

Groundwater with high fluoride

A B S T R A C T
Groundwater with high fluoride content is reported from Chittur block, Pal- ghat district, Kerala, South India. Chittur block represents a mid land region of Palghat district with an area of 261 sq km and is categorized as over ex- ploited area. The study area differs from the rest of the district in its climate and is a rain shadow region with an average rainfall of 1500 mm. Palghat dis- trict represents a hard rock terrain in which weathered crystallines, laterites, alluvium form the phreatic aquifers, and deep fractures in the crystallines form the semi-confined and confined aquifers. Hydrogelogical investigations along with sample collections have been carried out to identify the fluoride affected area and to demarcate its spatial extent. 50 observation wells were estab- lished for water level and quality monitoring. 50 groundwater samples were collected from different geological units covering the entire geographical area of the block. Chemical analyses have been carried out in the department of Geology, University of Kerala. The results have been correlated with various factors. Form the study it is found that both phreatic and deeper aquifers have high fluoride (F−) and the concentration ranges from 0.2 to 5.75 mg/l. Flu- oride content of ground water originates from the dissolution of the fluorine bearing minerals from the bed rock. Low amount of fluoride (0.3-1.0 mg/l) in drinking water helps in the prevention of dental caries and osteoporosis. How- ever, high intake of fluoride (>1.5 mg/l) in drinking water for a prolonged period can damage the teeth enamel and eventually lead to skeletal complica- tions which ultimately can result in fluorosis. Dental fluorosis observed in the study area. The spatiotemporal variation of F− content in ground water and its relation with geology, depth and types of well and hydrochemistry of water were studied and the data are processed on a GIS platform. Various layers digitized and attribute tables were prepared. ARC GIS 9.1 is used to study the spatial distribution of F− concentration in groundwater and its temporal varia- tion. Different thematic layers were prepared. The geospatial analyses results has revealed that the fluoride content in the groundwater has a strong bear- ing with geology , mineral assemblages, rock water interaction and climate of the region. The other factors have negligible role in shaping the groundwater chemistry of the region. Temporal variation of F− concentration is also noticed in the area. Since groundwater is the major source for drinking purposes, re- medial measures are very much essential in the area. Detailed investigations are being carried out by the authors.

© 2011 Disaster Risk Vulnerablity Conference

The location of the study area lies between N latitude
10◦37′40′′ and 10◦48′59′′ and E longitude 76◦41′25′ content is reported and 76◦54′32′ and is shown Figure 1. Chittur block rep-

from Chittur block, Palghat district, Kerala, South India.resents a mid land region of Palghat district with an

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