1. Identify each of the following statements as either true or false. If false, explain why. (a) Viscosity is a measure of how easily a fluid flows.
(b) Although important, fluids are not essential to many living things. (c) A meniscus forms when water particles adhere to the sides of their container. (d) Buoyancy, like water pressure, acts in all directions.
2. Describe the relationship between mass, volume, and density of matter. 3. Use the particle theory to explain the differences between solids, liquids, and gases. 4. Comment on the accuracy of the statement below. Describe some exceptions to the statement if there are any. In general, solids are denser than liquids, and liquids are denser than gases. 5. Use the particle theory to explain why changing the temperature of a fluid can also change its density. 6. The density of a fluid usually decreases as the temperature rises. Explain how the behaviour of water differs from this pattern. 7. What is a hydrometer and what is it used for? Describe how to use a hydrometer. 8. Do hydrometers float higher in liquids that are denser or less dense? Make a Summary At the start of this unit; you created a table with some classmates to activate your knowledge of fluids (what they are, where they are found, how they are used, and some harmful effects of and to fluids). You have also developed a concept map as you worked through the material in the chapters. You will now use that table and initial concept map to finish examining and summarizing what you have learned since then. 9. using the particle theory, describe the relationship between temperature and the viscosity of a fluid. Explain any exceptions to the rule. 10. (a) What is the purpose of a valve?
(b) Choose a type of valve and draw at least two sketches to show how that valve works. 11. Describe the location of valves in the heart and explain their role. Use a diagram, if you find it helpful. 12. List six devices or machines that use fluid power. State whether each is a hydraulic system, a pneumatic system, or a combination of both. If any are a combination, describe which parts are hydraulic and which are pneumatic. 13. Describe how water striders and other small insects are able to walk across the surface of water. 14. Why are wind tunnels useful in studying fluid flow?
16. When the mustard container in Figure 1 is squeezed, on which part of the container does the mustard exert the greatest force? 17. In what ways does human use of fluids have a positive eff ect on society and the environment? In what ways does it have a negative effect? 18. Describe, or show using a graphic organizer (for example, a Venn diagram), the relationship between fluid mechanics, fluid dynamics, aerodynamics, and hydrodynamics. 19. People who have poor circulation should not sit with their legs crossed. Consider what you have learned about fluid flow and explain why this is so. 20. Would you prefer turbulent flow or laminar flow in your blood vessels? Explain. 21. Explain how the difference in compressibility between liquids and gases affects their use in fluid systems. 22. Explain why scuba divers use weight belts when diving. Would they require more or less weight when diving in colder waters? Explain your answer. 23. Cars use a hydraulic braking system. If the system used air instead of hydraulic brake fluid, how different might pushing on the brake pedal feel? Explain. 24. During the production of a batch of maple syrup, a hydrometer is placed in four test samples taken at different times throughout the evaporation process. (a) Rank the liquids from least dense to most dense.
(b) Which sample was collected earliest in the evaporating process? How do you know? (c) Which sample would taste the sweetest? Explain.
25. Research an object that uses valves to control fluid flow. Make a simple drawing to show how the valve works. 26. Figure 3 shows water coming from a bottle with three punctures. Describe why the water is flowing...
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