Flawed Victory at Omaha Beach

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German Disposition at Omaha Beach - enemy beach defenses; deliberate defense. Terrain: HIgh cliffs with open beach front.

American Doctrine: Pre-landing Bombing or Bombardment with Naval Gunfire and overwhelming fire support from all sources. (US Experience in Central Pacific) ^ Amphibious

British Doctrine: Amphibious operations. Tactical surprise under the cover of darkness - limiting effects of enemy fire.--lessens casualties, and allows you to attack in high defense (British experience in North Africa and Mediterranean)

Compromise: Overall Operational plan took element of each. Daytime landing with air support...but failed (FLAWED VICTORY)

1st Infantry Division - "Big Red One" combat experienced, without them US driven back into the sea -Adapted and overcame whatever was in front of them during push against German defenses

Low Tide vs. High Tide: Effects on landing craft.
-Low tide was best, because there were tank barriers on the beach
-D-Day happened at 6:30am - that's when low tide is
-12 hours later would be low tide again

Air Support that was to fly over 30 minutes before landing:
-Damaged targets, missed all barriers and barricades

4 of 35 landing crafts survived

Thesis of Argument: The plan for the Normandy invasion did not conform to the British practice of amphibious operations used in N Africa, Sicily and Italy, nor did it conform to the American practice of amphibious operations used at Tarawa, Kwajalein, Iow Jima, and other Central Pacific islands.

Question 8:
High losses in 1st Infantry caused by:
- Deliberate Defense of the Germans
- Sunken tanks (4 / 36)
- Failed bombings that didn't take out defenses
- Attack took place during the day
- Mental and physical exhaustion: attack was supposed to take place on the 5th, but was postponed, then men were fed huge breakfast, some were sick...
-Still did their job, but contributed to loss of life
***Combined amphibious doctrine just didn't work the way it was...
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