Fitness

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Physical fitness has been defined as a set of attributes or characteristics that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity.The above definition from Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General is the most common currently used definition of physical fitness. It was originally used by Caspersen and has been used extensively. An alternative definition by Howley and Frank that provides additional descriptive information is: Physical fitness is a state of well-being with low risk of premature health problems and energy to participate in a variety of physical activities. While either is a good definition, most experts agree that physical fitness is both multidimensional and hierarchical. In previous years[when?], fitness was commonly defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. However, as automation increased leisure time, changes in lifestyles following the industrial revolution rendered this definition insufficient. In current contexts, physical fitness is considered a measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations. Fitness

A US marine performing fitness exercises.
The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports — a study group sponsored by the government of the United States—declines to offer a simple definition of physical fitness. Instead, it developed the following chart: Health relatedSkill relatedSports

Metabolic
Morphological
Bone integrity
Other
Body composition
Cardiovascular fitness
Flexibility
Muscular endurance
Muscle strength
Agility
Balance
Coordination
Power
Speed
Reaction time
Other
Team sport
Individual sport
Lifetime
Other
A comprehensive fitness program tailored to an individual typically focuses on one or more specific skills, and on age-, or health-related needs such as bone health....
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