Financial Statement Analysis Chapter 4

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Financial Statement Analysis
K R Subramanyam John J Wild

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

4-2

Analyzing Investing Activities

4
CHAPTER

4-3

Current Asset Introduction
Classification Current (Short-term) Assets
Resources or claims to resources that are expected to be sold, collected, or used within one year or the operating cycle, whichever is longer.

Noncurrent (Longterm) Assets
Resources or claims to resources that are expected to yield benefits that extend beyond one year or the operating cycle, whichever is longer.

4-4

Current Asset Introduction
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Liquidity
Cash Currency, coins and amounts on deposit in bank accounts, checking accounts, and some savings accounts.

4-5

Current Asset Introduction
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Liquidity Cash Equivalents

Short-term, highly liquid investments that are:  Readily convertible to a known cash amount.  Close to maturity date and not sensitive to interest rate changes.

4-6

Current Asset Introduction
Analysis of Cash and Cash Equivalents • Companies risk a reduction in liquidity should the market value of short-term investments decline. • Cash and cash equivalents are sometimes required to be maintained as compensating balances to support existing borrowing arrangements or as collateral for indebtedness.

4-7

Current Asset Introduction
Receivables Receivables are amounts due from others that arise from the sale of goods or services, or the loaning of money

Accounts receivable refer to oral promises of indebtedness due from customers Notes receivable refer to formal written promises of indebtedness due from others

4-8

Current Asset Introduction
Valuation of Receivables

Receivables are reported at their net realizable value — total amount of receivables less an allowance for uncollectible accounts Management estimates the allowance for uncollectibles based on experience, customer fortunes, economy and industry expectations, and collection policies

4-9

Current Asset Introduction
Analyzing Receivables
Assessment of earnings quality is often affected by an analysis of receivables and their collectibility Analysis must be alert to changes in the allowance—computed relative to sales, receivables, or industry and market conditions. Two special analysis questions: (1) Collection Risk Review allowance for uncollectibles in light of industry conditions Apply special tools for analyzing collectibility: • Determining competitors’ receivables as a percent of sales—vis-à-vis the company under analysis • Examining customer concentration—risk increases when receivables are concentrated in one or a few customers • Investigating the age pattern of receivables—overdue and for how long • Determining portion of receivables that is a renewal of prior receivables • Analyzing adequacy of allowances for discounts, returns, and other credits (2) Authenticity of Receivables Review credit policy for changes Review return policies for changes Review any contingencies on receivables

4-10

Current Asset Introduction
Securitization of Receivables
Securitization (or factoring) is when a company sells all or a portion of its receivables to a third party

Receivables can be sold with or without recourse to a buyer (recourse refers to guarantee of collectibility) Sale of receivables with recourse does not effectively transfer risk of ownership

•For securitizations with any type of recourse, the seller must record both an asset and a compensating liability for the amount factored •For securitizations without any recourse, the seller removes the receivables from the balance sheet

4-11

Securitization of Receivables - Example

4-12

Current Asset Introduction
Prepaid Expenses
Prepaid expenses are advance payments for services or goods not yet received that extend beyond the current accounting period— examples are advance payments...
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