Capitalism, economic system in which private individuals and business firms carry out production and exchange of goods and services through complex transactions that involve prices and markets. Although it has its origins in antiquity, the development of capitalism is a European phenomenon, evolved in different stages, to be considered established in the second half of the nineteenth century. From Europe, specifically from England, the capitalist system was extended to the whole world, and the socioeconomic system almost exclusively on the world until the outbreak of World War I, after which she set a new socioeconomic system, the Communism, he became the opposite of capitalism.
One can say that there must be a founder of the capitalist system, this is the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith, who was the first to describe the basic economic principles that define capitalism.
Feudalism is the historiographical name of the political system prevailing in Western Europe the central centuries of the Middle Ages (Middle Ages, between the ninth to thirteenth centuries), characterized by the decentralization of political power by relying on the diffusion of power from the top (which in theory were the emperor and kings) towards the base (where local power is actually exercised with great autonomy or independence in the noble practice of very different denominations, based on the Carolingian Empire -marquises, dukes, earls, barons, knights, etc. -).
As socio-economic formation, feudalism began in late antiquity with the transition from slave mode of production to feudal crisis from the third century and especially the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire (V century) and the formation of the Germanic kingdoms and the Carolingian Empire (eighth and ninth centuries).
Contractual system of political and military relations between members of the nobility of Western Europe during the Middle Ages. Feudalism was characterized by the granting of fiefs (usually in the form of land and labor) in return for providing political and military contract sealed by an oath of homage and fidelity. But both Mr. and vassal were free men, so that should not be confused with the feudal system, that contemporary system, which regulated the relations between lords and peasants. Feudalism joined political and military provision for land ownership in order to preserve medieval Europe from disintegrating into myriad independent estates after the collapse of the Carolingian Empire.
Feudalism reached the climax of its development in the thirteenth century thereafter began its decline. The subenfeudamiento reached the point that the gentlemen had trouble getting the benefits they should receive. The subjects preferred cash payments (scutagium, "fees shield") in exchange for military aid due to their masters and in turn they tended to prefer the money, which allowed them to hire professional troops that were often better trained and were more disciplined than the vassals. Moreover, the resurgence of infantry tactics and the introduction of new weapons such as bow and pike, the cavalry did not already a factor in the war. The accelerated decline of feudalism in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. During the Hundred Years War, the French and British cavalry fought hard, but the battles were won largely by professional soldiers and especially the archers on foot. Professional soldiers fought in units whose leaders had taken the oath of homage and fealty to a prince, but no contracts had inherited and usually last for months or years. This "bastard feudalism" was a step system of mercenaries, who had triumphed in Italy in the Renaissance condottieri.
The causes of the transformation from feudalism to capitalism This section will discuss the reasons that the authors of the debate set in the disintegration of feudalism and the rise of capitalism. The nature of the contributing causes are internal causes and external to...