Sagar, S. S., Lavallee, D (2010).
The developmental origins of fear of failure in adolescent athletes: Examining parental practices, Psychology of Sport and Exercise 1-11. Sager et al. (2010) examined the origins of Fear of Failure (FF) in adolescent adults. They did this by examining how parent socialization and child interaction play a part in the development of FF in a child. Three families with adolescent athletes ages 13-14 were tested. The parents and the athletes were all interviewed separately and individually three times over a period of a month. The first interview was just for background information. The second interview examined the parents’ and athletes’ aspirations, attitudes, and achievement beliefs. The third interview was broken into three parts. The first part examined past experiences of success and failure and their reactions to it. The second part of the interview examined how parents evaluated their child’s performance and then how they conveyed approval or disapproval to the child. The final part of the interview examined the interaction between parents and athlete before the competition, during competition, and after competition. The results showed that parental practices and behavior were divided into three categories: parental punitive behavior, parental controlling behavior, and parental high expectations. Parental punitive behavior included parental criticism, parental punishment, and parental threat. Parental controlling behavior included attending daily training, engaging in competition preparation, and attending competitions. Parental high expectations included having a good attitude, showing good sportsmanship, and performing well. This study did a good job of explaining the effect that parents have on children’s motivation. According to the research parents can either motivate or tear down the child’s self esteem to the point where they no longer want to participate in the sport. It is easy to understand how the negative things can potentially force children to quit the sport. The research does a good job of offering things parents can do to positively motivate their child. The research would have benefitted if the number of participants would have greater and if the participants were different ethically. Sager, Sam S., Lavalle, David, Spray, Chris M. (2009). Coping With the Effects of Fear of Failure: A Preliminary Investigation of Young Elite Athletes. Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 3, 73-98 Sager et al. (2009) examined coping with the effects of FF in young elite athletes. The purpose was to see the effects of FF There were 11 male and female British elite athletes whose ages ranged 14-17. They were involved in a range of sports. The study had three stages, seeking consent, initial meeting, and the interview. The study showed that FF affected four areas: well-being, interpersonal behavior, sport performance, and school performance. Effects of FF on well-being appeared to increase the athletes’ negative cognition and emotion in periods before competition. Effects of FF on interpersonal behavior showed athletes became more irritable and less sociable for a brief period of time. Effects of FF on sport performance showed that it affected the athletes negatively. They became more concerned with messing up then trusting their talent. Effects of FF on school work appeared to have an adverse reaction causing them to neglect doing school work. This study did a great job explaining all the different effects FF plays on young athletes. The study made sure not to just focus on one aspect of a child’s personality. The effect of FF on school work was one of the main effects that I thought could have been elaborated on. The study was to narrow in get a good sample. The number of participants could have skewed the research in one direction. Conroy. David E., Elliot, Andrew J., (2003). Fear of Failure and...