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Key words : functional grammar ; transitivity ; stylistics ; narrative ; gender
+. Introduction This article explores the relationship between linguistic structures and socially constructed meaning in a narrative text. By employing Halliday’s transitivity framework, the article attempts
to reveal the ideology and power relations that underpin a literary text from a semantico-grammatical point of view. This study seeks common ground where systemic grammar and narrative, which have long been considered separate disciplines, can meet.
+. + Narrative as a linguistically constructed world We humans beings often put our experiences and thoughts into stories. Narrative refers to storytelling, both written and spoken, including oral narrative. A narrative constructs a world using various linguistic resources. A narrative is a microcosm of how people act, feel, and think, and what they value as an individual or as a member of a community or institution. There are various methods for, and theories of, narrative analysis and its
presentation. One of the most widely adopted is that of Labov and Waletsky +301 , who presented structural stages for narrative
analysis that have been widely accepted. The stages are : +. Abstract, ,. Orientation, -. Complicating Action, .. Evaluation, /. Results / Resolution, /. Coda Labov and Waletsky +301 . , It is important to note the ways in which the structural stages of a narrative can be ordered, controlled, and even manipulated in order to encode ideological assumptions, and also to get across some ideas. This is especially true of the evaluation stage which is a sort of representation of narrative, where many linguistic devices can be used. In this way, “the ability to narrate has to be seen as a creative artifact and therefore not necessarily a
Stylistic and Linguistic Analysis of a Literary Text Using Systemic Functional Grammar
representation…of actual events” Critical discourse analysis
Davies ,**/ : 33 . CDA , a politicized school of
discourse analysis, attempts to uncover the underlying ideology or worldview of the text under consideration. For example, Fairclough Kress, and +323, +33/ , Fowler Trew +313 adopt +311, +320 , and Fowler, Hodge, various linguistic analyses,
including transitivity and modality, to uncover ideas and evaluation in newspapers, advertisements, narratives, and other texts and to reveal that they are not objective retellings of what actually happened or occurring events, but socially and
ideologically situated retellings. By extension, Bell ,*** makes significant points about the ways that institutional structure influences discourse type. As such, narrative research should be interdisciplinary, blurring and crossing boundaries of linguistic and social studies and literary pursuit.
One of the regrettable points about the critical discourse analysis tradition is that they seem to have given the impression that their approach has been focused on foregrounding examples of linguistic and stylistic deviance. An important point this article hopes to make is that linguistic, stylistic, or interdisciplinary analysis of a text should not always be oriented towards uncovering examples of deviant linguistic patterns ; it can be used beneficially for clarifying characteristics and meanings in any text whether conventional or nonconventional features
including literary and nonliterary ones.
+. ,. Pioneering linguistic and stylistic analyses of literary texts This section introduces some of the previous literature that illustrates how power relations and conventional or
nonconventional attitudes towards life are reflected in language...