Facilities layout refers to the arrangement of all equipment, machinery, and furnishings within a building envelope after considering the various objectives of the facility. The layout consists of production areas, support areas, and the personnel areas in the building Need of Facilities Layout
The need for facilities layout arises both in the process of designing a new layout and in redesigning an existing layout. The need in the former case is obvious but in the latter case it is because of many developments as well as many problems with in the facility such as change in the product design, obsolescence of existing facilities, change in demand, frequent accidents, more scrap and rework, market shift, introduction of a new product etc. Objectives of Facilities Layout Design
Primary objectives of a typical facility layout include
(1) Overall integration and effective use of man, machine, material, and supporting services, (2) Minimization of material handling cost by suitably placing the facilities in the best possible way, (3) Better supervision and control,
(4) Employee's convenience, safety, improved morale and better working environment, (5) Higher flexibility and adaptability to changing conditions and (6) Waste minimization and higher productivity.
Types of Layout
The basic types of layouts are:
•Fixed position layout
This type of layout is generally used in systems where a product has to be manufactured or assembled in large quantities. In product layout the machinery and auxiliary services are located according to the processing sequence of the product without any buffer storage within the line itself. A pictorial representation of a product type of layout is given in Figure 1. The advantages and disadvantages are given in Table 1.
Figure 1: A Pictorial Representation of Product Type of Layout Table 1: Advantages And Disadvantages of...