Exxon Mobil and Environment

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Exxon Valdez oil spill

|Table of Contents | |1 Introduction | |2 Events leading up to the spill | |3 The behavior of the oil | |4 Countermeasures and Mitigation | |4.1 Control of the oil spill at sea | |4.2 Shoreline treatment | |5 Economic impacts | |6 How much oil remains? | |7 Ecosystem response to the spill | |7.1 Acute Mortality | |7.2 Long-term impacts | |7.3 State of recovery | |8 Legal responsibility of ExxonMobil | |8.1 Criminal Settlement | |8.1.1 Plea Agreement | |8.1.2 Criminal Restitution | |8.2 Civil Settlement | |9 The response of ExxonMobil | |10 Lessons learned from the spill | |11 Further Reading | | | |[pic] |

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Contributing Author: Cutler J. Cleveland (other articles)
Content Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (other articles) Article Topics: Pollution and Energy
This article has been reviewed and approved by the following Topic Editor: Peter Saundry (other articles) Last Updated: August 26, 2008
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Introduction

On March 24, 1989, the tanker Exxon Valdez, en route from Valdez, Alaska to Los Angeles, California, ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The vessel was traveling outside normal shipping lanes in an attempt to avoid ice. Within six hours of the grounding, the Exxon Valdez spilled approximately 10.9 million gallons of its 53 million gallon cargo of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Eight of the eleven tanks on board were damaged. The oil would eventually impact over 1,100 miles of non-continuous coastline in Alaska, making the Exxon Valdez the largest oil spill to date in U.S. waters. The response to the Exxon Valdez involved more personnel and equipment over a longer period of time than did any other spill in U.S. history. Logistical problems in providing fuel, meals, berthing, response equipment, waste management and other resources were one of the largest challenges to response management. At the height of the response, more than 11,000 personnel, 1,400 vessels and 85 aircraft were involved...
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