Analysis
Torque is the ability of force to change the rotational motion of a particle. It is also called the moment of force. It is always specified with regard to the axis of rotation. On the experiment the axis of rotation serves as the model balance. This means that as much as torque is directly proportional with the force applied on a particle, it is also dependent on the perpendicular distance of the applied force to the axis of rotation. On the first activity we need to determine the weight of the pans. At first we had a difficulty or rather error on the activity because we put weights on both of the pans which causes the equilibrium to be invalid. On the third activity we need to use the second hole in the beam as the axis of rotation so that the center of gravity of the beam does not pass through the new axis of rotation.

Conclusion:
The experiment was done with the purpose to analyze systems in equilibrium using the second condition of equilibrium and to distinguish some of its use and significance. In the experiment we analyzed systems and how it is applied. After performing the experiment, I can therefore conclude that the torque is affected by the forces acting on the system and their radial distance from the axis of rotation, the shorter the lever arm the greater the force, the longer the lever arm the lesser the force.

Related Discussion
According to this condition, an object that is in equilibrium does not move along a straight line. This means that the sum of all forces applied on it is zero. Also, the sum of all the rotational forces on the object is zero due to which the object does not rotate. Thus, the second condition of equilibrium states that the sum of all the torques on an object that is in equilibrium is zero. The second condition assures those torques are also balanced. Torque is the rotational equivalent of a force in producing a rotation and is defined to be τ=rFsinθ , where τ is torque, r is the...

...Torques
Introduction During this lab you will become more familiar with the concepts of torque. The purpose of this lab is to determine if the rotational equilibrium condition, Στ = 0, holds experimentally. Equipment Meter stick (1) - no metal ends Fulcrum (1) Clamps (4) Weight Hanger (1) Mass Set (1) Digital Scale (1)
Theory For a body to be in static equilibrium, two conditions have to be met:
ΣF = 0 and Στ = 0
where F is force and τ istorque. (The torque is the force times the lever arm, r) The first condition, ΣF = 0, is concerned with translational equilibrium and ensures that the object is at rest or is moving at a uniform linear velocity. The second condition, Στ = 0, is concerned with rotational equilibrium and ensures that the object is not rotating or is rotating at a uniform angular velocity. Special Instructions Goals - One of the primary goals of this lab is accurate measurement with attention to detail and the use of the correct number of significant figures. I know that you can finish this lab quickly – but don’t. Squeeze as much precision as you can out of this set of equipment. Think up ways of avoiding errors and inaccuracies rather than explaining them away in the lab report. Units - In this lab you will find it convenient to use grams as the mass unit and centimeters as the distance measure. The nature of the torque balance equations allows us to take this short cut for...

...Experiments in physics lab report
Department of Electrical Engineering
Isabela State University
Ilagan Campus, Calamagui 2nd, City of Ilagan, Isabela
baccaljoemel@yahoo.com
Submitted to:
Engr. Rafael S. Ramos
Physics12 Professor
Submitted by:
Joemel L. Baccal
BSEE IIA
Experiments in Physics Lab Report
Joemel L. Baccal
Department of Electrical Engineering
Isabela State University - Ilagan Campus, Calamagui 2nd, City of Ilagan, Isabela
baccaljoemel@yahoo.com
Abstract
In studying this chapter you should aim to understand the basic concepts of electric charge and field and their connections. Most of the material provides illustrations which should help you to acquire that understanding. To test whether you have understood the concepts see if you can describe and explain the applications in your own words.
Introduction
The natural world provides precious few clues to the ubiquity of electromagnetism. The properties of rubbed amber and the magnetism of lodestone were little more than curiosities until the 17th century. The elucidation of the nature of lightning and the recognition of light as electromagnetic radiation were even more recent. Yet our world is governed by electromagnetic interactions. All chemical bonds, the strength and weakness of materials, light, the influences that form and control living things are all aspects of electromagnetism. Indeed, only three other types of fundamental force are known: the...

...Torques equilibrium, and center of gravity
Introduction
Torque is a quantitative measure of the tendency of a force to cause or change the rotational motion of a rigid body. A torque is the result of force acting at a distance from an axis of rotation. An essential thing to keep in mind is that the magnitude of the torque is equal to the product of the forces perpendicular distance and magnitude.
Theory
The magnitude of the torque (t) is found from the product of the force F and the perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to the forces line of action. When there is no net torque acting on a stationary rigid body, the body will then be in static rotational equilibrium and there is no rotational motion.
Materials
* meter stick
* support stand
* laboratory balance
* string
* knife-edge clamp/four knife-edge clamps
* four hooks
* weights
* unknown mass with hooks
Procedure
First the apparatus was to be set up which consisted of a supporting stand, meter stick, and knife edge clamp. The mass of the clamp and meter stick were measured on a balance beam. The clamps and weight hangers were attached to the meter stick and the instructed weights were added to each hanger and the clamps were situated on the accurate spot. The clamp was then moved slowly away from the center until the meter stick was at equilibrium or balanced. In data...

...diameter of a square threaded spindle of a screw jack is 40 mm. The screw pitch is
10 mm. If the coefficient of friction between the screw and the nut is 0.15, neglecting friction
between the nut and collar, determine
(i) Force required to be applied at the screw to raise a load of 2000 N
(ii) The efficiency of screw jack
(iii) Force required to be applied at pitch radius to lower the same load of 2000 N and
(iv) Efficiency while lowering the load.
J
3
An open belt drive connects two pulleys 120 cm and 40 cm diameter on parallel shafts 4 m
apart. The maximum tension in the belt is 1855 N. The coefficient of friction is 0.3. The
driver pulley of diameter 120 cm runs at 200 rpm. Calculate:
(i) The power transmitted.
(ii) Torque on each of the two shafts.
4
A steel ball of diameter 150 mm rests centrally over a concrete cube of size 150 mm.
Determine the center of gravity of the system, taking weight of concrete = 25,000 N/m2 and
that of steel 80,000 N/m 2.
Contd. in Page 2
Page 1 of 2
www.jntuworld.com
www.jntuworld.com
www.jwjobs.net
R5
Code: R5 100305
5
(a)
(b)
6
(a)
(b)
7
(a)
(b)
8
Show that the moment of inertia of a thin circular ring of mass ‘M’ and mean radius ‘R’
with respect to its geometric axis is MR2.
Find the mass moment of inertia of a right circular cone of base radius ‘R’ and mass ‘M’
about the axis of the cone.
A train is uniformly accelerated and passes successive...

...pivoted about an axis through point O at its center and perpendicular to the plate. Calculate the net torque about this axis due to the three forces F1 = 18 N,
F2= 26N, and F3= 14N.
12. The flywheel of an engine has moment of inertia 2.50 kg m2 about its rotation axis. What constant torque is required to bring it up to an angular speed of 400 rev/min in 8 s, starting from rest?
13. A uniform 255 N rod that is 2m long carries a 225 N weight at its right end and an unknown weight W toward the left end. When W is placed 50 cm from the left end of the rod, the system just balances horizontally when the fulcrum is located 75 cm form the right end.
a. Find W.
b. If W is now moved 25 cm to the right, how far and in what direction must the fulcrum be moved to restore the balance?
14. A 1.5 kg grinding wheel is in the form of a solid cylinder of radius 0.100 m. (a) What constant torque will bring it from rest to an angular speed of 1200 rev/min in 2.5 s? (b) Through what angle has it turned during that time? (c) Calculate the work done by the torque. (d) What is the grinding wheel’s kinetic energy when it is rotating at 1200 rev/min?
15. A 50 kg grindstone is a solid disk 0.520 m in diameter. You press an ax down on the rim with a normal force of 160 N. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the blade and the stone is 0.60 and there is a constant friction torque of 6.50 N-m between the...

...Experiment #4
Torque
ABSTRACT
The objective of the experiment is to observe how the weight of the beam on which the forces act behaves like a force concentrated at the center of gravity of the beam and to determine the conditions of equilibrium for several parallel forces.
Before the experiment proper, Torque was discussed extensively. The experiment is divided into two parts. In the firstexperiment, the meter stick was weighed and the group was tasked to find the center of gravity of the uneven meter stick and supporting the meter stick other than its center of gravity, bring it into equilibrium using the weight of a single mass.
In the second part of the experiment, the meter stick was supported on the 30 cm mark and weights were applied (200g at 10 cm mark, 100g at 20cm mark, 20g at 90 cm mark). The group was tasked to locate the position at which the 50 g must be hanged to produce rotational equilibrium. The group was able to compute for the torque arm and small percentage error occurred.
GUIDE QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS
1. Define the following:
a. The moment of a force – it is the tendency to cause rotation about a point or an axis. It is also called torque (τ).
b. The center of gravity – it is the point where all the weight of an object can be considered to be concentrated.
2. Differentiate...

...Experiment 22
Title:
Reactions of aldehydes and ketones
Aim:
The purpose of this experiment is to compare some reactions of ethanal and propanone.
Introduction:
We have chosen ethanal and propanone as relatively safe examples of aldehydes and ketones to illustrate their reactions in simple test-tube experiments.
The reactions or properties to be investigated are as follows:
A. Condensation (addition-elimination)
B. Oxidation
C. Triiodomethane (iodoform) reaction
Requirements:
Safety spectacles and gloves
6 test-tubes
ethanal, CH3CHO
propanone, CH3COCH3
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solution, C6H3(NO2) 2NHNH2
sodium hydroxide solution, 2 M NaOH
Bunsen burner, tripod, gauze and bench mat
Beaker, 250 cm3
Potassium dichromate(VI) solution, 0.1 M K2Cr2O7
Sulphuric acid, dilute, 1 M H2SO4
Fehling’s solutions 1 and 2
Silver nitrate solution, 0.05 M AgNO3
Ammonia solution, 2 M NH3
Iodine solution, 10% (in KI (aq))
Procedure:
Part A
Condensation reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine
1. Put 1-2 drops of ethanal in a test-tube and add about 2 cm3 of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solution. Note your observations.
2. Repeat for propanone.
Part B
Oxidation reactions
A. With acidified potassium dichromate (VI)
3. Into a test-tube, put 5 drops of ethanal, 2 drops of potassium dichromate (VI) solution and 10 drops of dilute sulphuric acid.
4. Shake the tube gently and warm in a beaker of...

...EXPERIMENT 5 REDOX TITRATION: TITRATION USING SODIUM THIOSULPHATE Objectives 1. 2. To prepare a standard solution of potassium iodate for use to determine the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution accurately. To acquire the proper techniques of carrying out a titration.
Introduction Redox titrations using sodium thiosulphate as a reducing agent is known as iodometric titration since it is used specifically to titrate iodine. The reaction involved is: I2 + 2Na2S2O3 I2 + 2S2O322NaI + Na2S4O6 2I- + S4O62-
In this equation I2 has been reduced to I- :2S2O32I2 + 2e S4O62- + 2e 2I-
The iodine/thiosulphate titration is a general method for determining the concentration of an oxidising agent solution. A known volume of an oxidising agent is added into an excess solution of acidified potassium iodide. The reaction will release iodine:Example: (a) With KMnO4 2MnO4- + 16H+ + 10I(b) With KIO3 IO3- + 5I+ 6H+ 3I2 + 3H2O 2Mn2+ + 5I2 + 8H2O
The iodine that is released is titrated against a standard thiosulphate solution. From the stoichiometry of the reaction, the amount of iodine can be determined and from this, the concentration of the oxidising agent which released the iodine, can be calculated. In an iodometric titration, a starch solution is used as an indicator as it can absorb the iodine that is released. This absorption will cause the solution to change to a dark blue colour. When this dark blue solution is titrated with the standardised thiosulphate...