1. The independent variable for A, B, and C is postnatal age in hours. The dependent variables for A, B, and C are systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean blood pressure respectively. The relationships between these variable is direct and positive in that as the independent variable of postnatal age increases the corresponding dependent variable increases.

2. The independent and dependent variables in Figure 3 are the same as in Figure 2, as well as the relationship between the variable. The difference is that figure 3 displays the relationship with regard to infants with a body weight of 1001-1500 grams, and figure 2 deals with infants with a body weight equal to or lesser than 1000.

3. According to figure 3,” in each instance, the y intercept was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than the value for comparable lines of best fit in infants with birth weight ≤1,000 grams.”; This is evident when comparing the y-intercepts in each graph.

4. According to the equation, the y-intercept is 43.2 and the slop is 0.17. “x” represents the independent variable of postnatal age in hours.

5. If the value of x is postnatal age of 30 hours, then the value for SBP equals 43.2 + 0.17(30) or 48.3.

6. If the value of x is postnatal age is 30 hours, then SBP = 50.3 + 0.12(30) or 53.9.

7. The SBP reading for question 6 is higher than that of question 5. This is mostly due to the significant difference in y-intercepts.

8. If the value of x is postnatal age is 30 hours, then DBP = 25.8 + 0.13(30) or 29.7.

9. If the value of x is postnatal age is 30 hours, then DBP = 30.4 + 0.11(30) or 33.7.

10. The DBP when the value of x is postnatal age of 60 hours is 30.4 + 0.11(60) or 48.3. This value is higher than the DBP when x is a postnatal age of 30 hours because the equation is the same, but the direct positive relationship correlates with a higher DBP value for a higher postnatal age.

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HLT362 Module 5 Exercise 27 Simple Linear Regression
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What are the independent and dependent variables in Figures 2, A, B, and C? How would you describe the relationship between the variables in Figures 2, A, B, and C?
What are the independent and dependent variables in Figures 3, A, B, and C? How would you describe the relationship between the variables in Figures 3, A, B, and C?
Was there a significant difference in the y intercept for the lines of best fi t in Figure 2 from the y intercept for the lines of best fi t in Figure 3? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Ŷ represents the predicted value of y calculated using the equation Ŷ a bx. In Figure 2, the formula for SBP is Ŷ 43.2 0.17x. Identify the y intercept and the slope in this formula. What does x represent in this formula?
In the legend beneath Figure 2, the authors give an equation indicating that systolic blood pressure is SBP 43.2 0.17x. If the value of x is postnatal age of 30 hours, what is the value for Ŷ or SBP for neonates ≤1,000 grams? Show your calculations. In the legend beneath Figure 2, the authors give an equation indicating that systolic blood pressure is SBP 50.3 0.12x. If the value of x...

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HLT362 Week 1 -5 All Discussion Questions
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Week 1 Dqs
1 - How could graphics and/or statistics be used to misrepresent data? Where have you seen this done?
2 - What are the characteristics of a population for which a mean/median/mode would be appropriate? Inappropriate?
Week 2 DQS
1 - Explain the importance of random sampling. What problems/limitations could prevent a truly random sampling and how can they be prevented?
2 - How large would your population have to be for a sample to be appropriate (i.e., rather than measuring the whole population)?
Week 3 DQS
1 - Suppose you hear an “old-timer” say, “Why, in my day, kids were much more respectful and didn’t cause as much trouble as they do nowadays!” Formulate a hypothesis related to this statement that you could test. How would you test it?
2 - Researchers routinely choose an α-level of 0.05 for testing their hypotheses. What are some experiments for which you might want a lower α -level (e.g. 0.01)? What are some situations in which you might accept a higher level (e.g. 0.1)?
3 - Explain when a z-test would be appropriate over a t-test.
Week 4 DQS
1 - If the result of an ANOVA experiment was "not significant",...

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HLT362 Module 1 Exercise 16
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1- The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement? (Your choices are: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval/ratio, or Experimental)
2- What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group?
3- Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.
4- Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer.
5- Which group’s test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.
6 - Did the empowerment variable or self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrate the greatest amount of dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.
7 - The mean (X ̅) is a measure of a distribution while the SD is a measure of its scores. Both X ̅ and SD are statistics.
8 - What was the mean severity for renal disease for the research subjects? What was the dispersion or variability of the renal disease severity scores? Did the severity scores vary...

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HLT362 Module 4 Exercise 36
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The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) 9.619, p 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results.
State the null hypothesis for the Baird and Sands (2004) study that focuses on the effect of the GI with PMR treatment on patients’ mobility level. Should the null hypothesis be rejected for the difference between the two groups in change in mobility scores over 12 weeks? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The researchers stated that the participants in the intervention group reported a reduction in mobility difficulty at week 12. Was this result statistically significant, and if so at what probability?
If the researchers had set the level of significance or = 0.01, would the results of p 0.001 still be statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.
If F(3, 60) 4.13, p 0.04, and = 0.01, is the result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer. Would the null hypothesis be accepted or rejected?
Can ANOVA be used to test proposed relationships or predicted correlations between...

...Name: Zipporah Gachoya Class: HLT 362V
Date: 08/10/2013
■ Ex Questions to be graded: Exercise 31
6. What is the smallest, significant t ratio listed in Table 2? Provide a rationale for your answer.
t = 2.03* the smallest t ratio listed in Table 2. It indicates that the cholesterol level change was statistically significant from pretest to 3 months. It is greater than the given value of p<0.05
7. Why are the larger t ratios more likely to be statistically significant?
They are more likely to be significant because there is a large difference in the pre and post tested values, so these are the areas that will be affected most. Their p-values are also smaller.
8. Did the health-promotion program have a statistically significant effect on Systolic blood pressure (BP) in this study? Provide a rationale for your answer.
No, the health-promotion program did not appear to have a significant effect on blood pressure. The t-ratio is greater than 0.05 which was the initial setting. This may be because the health program didn’t cover blood pressure, or it was simply something that people didn’t think about with their overall health.
9. Examine the means and standard deviations for Systolic BP at pretest, 3 months (completion of the treatment), and 6 months. What do these results indicate? Are these results clinically important? Provide a rationale for your answer.
These results indicate that there was very little change in Systolic...

...Exercise 36
1. The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) = 9.619, p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results.
The F-value is high enough at the 5% level of significance to suggest a significant difference between the control and treatment groups. The p-value 0.005 < 0.05 hence this suggests a rejection of the null hypothesis, meaning that the control and treatment groups are found to be different.
2. State the null hypothesis for the Baird and Sands (2004) study that focuses on the effect of the GI with PMR treatment on patients’ mobility level. Should the null hypothesis be rejected for the difference between the two groups in change in mobility scores over 12 weeks? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The null hypothesis is that the mean mobility scores for both groups are the same. As stated previously, since the p-value 0.005 < 0.05 this means I reject the null hypothesis. So the mean "difficulty with mobility score" for both groups must be different.
3. The researchers stated that the participants in the intervention group reported a reduction in mobility difficulty at week 12. Was this result statistically significant, and if so at what probability?
Yes the result was statistically significant at probability p < 0.001, according to the text.
4. If the researchers...

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Questions to be Graded
1. What are the two groups whose results are reflected by the t ratios in Tables 2 and 3?
Answer: The two groups that are reflected by the t rations in table 2 and 3 are the Program effects of cardiovascular risk factors (Table 2) and program effect on Health behavior (Table 3).
2. Which t ratio in Table 2 represents the greatest relative or standardized difference between the pretest
and 3 months outcomes? Is this t ratio statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Answer: The greatest relative or standardized difference between the pretest and 3 month outcome is for the total risk score t ratio of t = 4.14*. Due to the presence of an asterisk next to the t ratio, it shows that the result is statistically significant. Therefore, the results shows that there been a decrease in risk score from pretest mean of 20.1 to 3 month mean of 16.8.
3. Which t ratio listed in Table 3 represents the smallest relative difference between the pretest and 3 months? Is this t ratio statistically significant? What does this result mean?
Answer: t=-0.65(stress management) represent the smallest relative or standardized difference between pretest and 3 months in table 3. This t ratio does not have an asterisk (*) next to it in table 3, therefore, it is not statistically significant. At 3 months, the difference in stress management from pretest was no longer statistically significant with t=-0.65.
4. What are the assumptions for...

...EXERCISE 16 Questions to be Graded
• 1. The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement?
o a.Nominal
o b.Ordinal
o c.Interval/ratio
o d.Experimental
• 2. What was the mean post-test empowerment score for the control group?
The mean post-test empowerment score for the control group is 97.12 (from Table 2).
• 3. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The baseline score mean is 14 and the post-test depression score mean is 13.36, meaning they were less depressed after completing the empowerment program. This is an expected finding because the researchers had hypothesized this decrease as a result of the program.
• 4. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The mean baseline and post-test depression scores of the control group are both identical at 10.40. Because this is the control group, no change in depression score is expected, therefore this strengthens the validity of the research results when comparing the control group results to the experimental group results.
• 5. Which group's test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The group with the least amount of variability is the experimental...