Evolution of Private Security

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How private security has evolved, from its roots in Feudalism to its current state, and include supporting explanation. Security has always been a constant preoccupation of human being. During times following the fall of the Roman Empire, there were no longer authorities to maintain order and security problems begin to arise. Governments could no longer ensure the security of the population and people began to organize their own security. That is the feudalism. Feudal society was based essentially on security and protection as it is said in (chap 2, P.32) ‘’ in early England, feudalism provided a very high degree of security for both the individual and the group’’. Lords became the primary providers of security. The system was that the king granted land to vassals that were important nobles in return for their help if needed, for example, nobles could provide soldiers to the king when there was war. At the population level, we could find some kind of police force where everybody was responsible of the community’s security. If there was a dangerous situation, everybody should get out and together they could repel or defeat criminals. During the transition to modernity that has provoked chaos and anarchy in many cities, new reforms have appeared to reestablish order and protect the population. Among these reforms, the most important was the concept of the supremacy of law over the arbitrary edict by King John. The importance of private security was reduced during this period in favor of the judicial system. However, the night watch continued and gates were close at night and, in addition, everybody was expected to pursue and bring the criminal to a judge or court. An important change occurs during the exploration period with the increase of merchants and the development of the urban. These situations have led to an increase of crimes and the need for security. Because there were no police agencies at this time, people were obliged to deal with the criminals by creating private security agencies to protect or track criminals. A revolution took place in the 18th century because for the first time, the night watchmen were paid thanks to taxes. It was an important step for the real implement of the private security. For the first colonies in America, the security was established like in early England security system. To protect themselves against hostile Indians and others colons, people regrouped in a fort and the security was everybody’s concern. Everybody was expected to defend the fort in case of danger. Even with of creation of the first police departments in some few states, the security was still a problem because these police officers were not well trained and many were corrupt. The first professional private security was created by Allan Pinkerton. Allen Pinkerton used new methods to investigate and met a lot of success. Some of his methods have been used later by the FBI to make the list of the 10 most wanted. As (Fisher, 2008) stated that ‘’Allan Pinkerton was perhaps the most celebrated and innovative criminal investigator of the mid to late nineteenth century in America’’. The private security took an important dimension with Pinkerton and he can be credited with today’s police mug books. It is said in (KENTUCKY SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS UNIT, 2013) that ‘’Allan Pinkerton was detailed in his work and established what is known as the “rogues’ gallery.” This was the detailed description of known criminals, including physical characteristics, background information, companions, and hideouts’’. Others private security agencies were created like the William J. Burns Detective Agency in 1909. We notice that the private security took a new step because agencies were created and encouraged by federal government. People were hired and trained by private security agencies to perform a security task and we can notice the first contract system. Many industrials started to hire private security agencies to protect their places....
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