Evalution of the Universe

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Evolution of the Universe

Mary Benton, Kenneth Mascis, Desire’e Ruegsegger, Carina Vega


April 22, 2013

Phyl Amadi

Evolution of the Universe
The evolution of earth will always remain a mystery. However, there is many scenarios and evidence to help understand the evolution of earth, its sun, planets, and the moon. The paper will derscribe how the earth and its atmosphere evolved with the help of other bodies. Which includes a discription of the formation of the bodies that plays a role in the evolution of earth. Also, a discription of the earth, sun, moon, planets, and other bodies motions according to Copernicus, Kepler, and Gallileo discoveries. Evolution: Earth and Its Atmosphere

Plate tectonics are the ultimate process that controls the changes on Earth. Dynamic activity like volcanism, meteorite impacts, mountain building, and erosion, is how our Earth has come to its current state, while the continuing motion of the Earth is what’s driving the resurfacing of the Earth resulting in faulting, basin formation, and volcanism. The combination of gravity and the Earth’s internal heat is the driving force for this continuous motion. Earth’s internal heat comes from consistent decay of radioactive elements, crystallization of the inner core, and the heat left-over from planet formation. Recent discoveries suggest that features of current Earth come from the planetary melting and planetary accumulation which involves the differentiation of objects. Mars and the Moon underwent global differentiation which allowed the separation of the core from the mantle and formed large parts of the Earth’s still-existing crust. The atmosphere and oceans first appeared about 4.5 billion years ago, soon after the Earth and Moon completed their formational phases (Mirali & Skinner, 2009). Oxygen was nearly absent in the atmosphere of the early Earth. The Great Oxygenation Event (GOE), or Great Oxidation, was the biologically induced appearance of free oxygen (O2) in Earth’s atmosphere. Cyanobacteria; a large photosynthetic bacterium, appears approximately 200 million years before the GOE and began to produce oxygen by photosynthesis (Carlson & Boyet, 2008). Cyanbacteria is known to be responsible for the initial rise of atmospheric oxygen during this time. Before the GOE, any free oxygen was chemically captured by dissolved iron or organic matter. After the GOE, any excess free oxygen began to accumulate in the atmosphere. Free oxygen is toxic to anaerobic organisms and the rising concentrations may have been the reason that most of the Earth’s anaerobic inhabitants were wiped out. Oxygen is dominantly locked in minerals in the crust and Earth’s interior and would remain as such if it weren’t for photo synthesizers. Methane and nitrous oxide have been increasing in recent years and a consequence of agricultural activities, and human-induced global warming (Kasing & Siefert, 2002). Thus, microorganisms have led to the basic composition of Earth’s atmosphere since the origin of life. Formation of the Bodies: Motions Role

About five billion years ago the galaxy had a supernova explosion causing large elements of debris pushing it through gasses called hydrogen into interstellar particles and dust. By this process of mixture under its own gravity at the center, it compressed together and formed a star of gasses that we see today. This star now became born which is now the sun, which around it a swirl of material compressed as forces for the heat. This process gave rise to our sister planets and throughout the universe. The sun started to grow larger and its energy source also started to ignite its source outward into nuclear fire balls. Within millions of years disks and components started to freeze over into small grains of dust. From this process what was found was silicon, iron, aluminum, magnesium with oxygen that was displayed as clumps and large chunks of...
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