Define ethnocentrism, and explain what Hofstede concluded about applying American management theories in other countries. According to Kinicki & Kreitner (2009), “Ethnocentrism [is] the belief that one’s native country, culture, language, and modes of behavior are superior to all others.” Based on his research, Hofstede came to two conclusions in regards to variations among cultures. First, he concluded that management theories and practices must be adapted to the local culture. Second, he found that companies and organizations could no longer afford to be arrogant in a global economy. In addition, Kinicki & Kreitner (2009) states that “research suggest ethnocentrism is bad for business. Ethnocentric staffing and human resource polices led to increased personnel problems. Those problems, included recruiting difficulties, high turnover rates, and lawsuits over personnel policies” (p. 65). The results of the study that Hofstede conducted over 30 years ago shows that no one management style works with every country. Every country or culture has it’s own style or process that works for them, but doesn’t always meet the needs of another country or culture. Hofstede warned against directly applying American-made management theories without adapting them first (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2009). He said there is no one best way to manage across cultures (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2009). Kinicki, A & Kreitner. R.(2009).Organizational Behavior: Key Concepts, Skills & Best Practices. Boston. McGraw-Hill.
Explain the difference between individualistic cultures and collectivist cultures and your personal experiences with culture shock. Individualistic cultures are characterized as ‘I’ and ‘me’ and “give priority to individual freedom and choice” (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2009), while Collectivist cultures are referred to as ‘we’ and ‘us’ cultures and put a greater emphasis on shared goals than individual goals. People in collectivist cultures tend to place...
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