Ethnicity in Today's Sports

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Armstrong, K. L. (2000). African-American Students' Responses to Race as a Source Cue in Persuasive Sport Communications. Journal of Sports Management, 14, 208-227.

It is important to think about all of the campaigning, advertising, and announcing that goes into sport communication. The article explains how when dealing with sports communication they always relate back to race. The study was to examine students and try to figure the response one might receive from the students from the role that was being portrayed. When the results came in they showed that African Americans held race at a higher value when dealing with the sports communication process.

Armstrong, K. L. (2000) race and sport consumption motivations: A preliminary investigation of a black consumers' sport motivation scale. Journal of Sport Management.

In this article sports consumption is explained. In this article Armstrong gives rise to the question, why do different races eat up the sports world in different ways and fashions? The article suggests that African Americans consume the sports world based on previous hardships. The article also suggests that Caucasian people eat up the sports world for the excitement of the game. The article also spoke a little about the differences between men and women and how their motivation toward sports are similar in some

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aspects. The fact that women are raised to be "girly" and men are raised to be "manly" makes their eagerness and motivation different.

Davis, H. & Stacia, L. (2001). Career maturity and the Black college student-athlete. The Sicence & Engineering Journal, 63, pgs.

This article studied the differences between black student-athletes, white student-athletes, and non student-athletes. . There is now talk of placing athletes in a comprehensive career planning intervention program before entering college to help with their career planning skills. The reason for implementing this program is due to the percentages that came from the study done. The study showed that a higher percentage of African American student athletes chose majors that had little or nothing to do with their chosen career path. The study also showed that more often than not African Americans had dreams of pro sport careers. The outcome of the study was the exact opposite when dealing with white student athletes. Most white student athletes chose majors that reflected their chosen career path and a low percentage had dreams of a pro sports career.

Goldsmith, P.A. (1999) Race and relations and racial patterns in school sports participation.

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In this article sports in the schools are examined. It is shown that there is a high level of competition between African Americans and other races. There is a lot of Speculation as to why this is. It could have to do with pressure from home or neighborhoods. I could be pressure from coached and school.

Hanson, S., & Kraus, R. (2003). Science experiences among female athletes: Race makes a difference. Journal of Woman Minorities in Sciences & Engineering. 9. 287.

In this article the two authors conducted an experiment to back their feminist theory that racial differences in relation to sport participation and science leads to different outcomes in achievement and consequences. The study was done on African-American, White, and Hispanic teens in eighth grade and tenth grade. The results of the experiment showed that while competing in sports and enrollment in science courses had a somewhat negative impact on white and Hispanic teens and the exact opposite for the African-American girls. The study also showed that all three groups work toward success in the science courses in different ways and that participation in sports factors in to the equation.

James, C. E. (2003). Schooling, basketball and US scholarly aspirations of Canadian student...
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