Vol. 3 No. 18 [Special Issue – September 2012]
Ethical Work Climate in Ugandan Procuring and Disposing Entities: Implications for Leadership
Henry MUTEBI Department of Procurement and Logistics Management Makerere University Business School P.O. Box 1337, Kampala, Uganda. Patrick KAKWEZI Department of Procurement and Logistics Management Makerere University Business School P.O. Box 1337, Kampala, Uganda. Dr. Joseph M. NTAYI, PhD Department of Management science Makerere University Business School P.O. Box 1337, Kampala, Uganda.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the ethical work climate of Ugandan Procuring and Disposing Entities (PDEs). Methodology: A cross sectional descriptive research design was employed and data were collected from 89 PDEs out of 174 PDEs. Findings: Findings reveal that Uganda’s PDE’s ethical work climate is multidimensional, composed of caring, rules, efficiency, service and independence climate. These have both policy and managerial implications which we discuss. Research limitations: The study is limited by factors like the study being cross – sectional in nature and considered Central Government Entities and left out the Local Government Entities, which are also public. Future studies should consider being longitudinal in nature as well as extending to the Local Government Entities. Practical implications: Practical implication is that leadership in PDEs is the need to take a leading role in providing work climate that promote independence of procurement officers so as to improve on their ethical attitude. Originality: The paper contributes to literature on ethical work climate in public procurement.
Key wards: Ethical work climate, caring, rules, efficiency, service, independence climate Uganda, Procuring and Disposing Entities.
Ethical work climate has been conceptualized by victor and Cullen (1988; Schneider, White, & Paul, 1998, p. 151) as collective perception of ethical events, ethical practices and ethical procedures prevailing in a particular organization. It is concerned with collective personality or psychological view of the organization. The concept of ethical work climate has been widely studied and researched in sociology and psychology (Victor & Cullen, 1988; Sarah & Amanda, 2009; and Shafer, 2009), however its application to public procurement remains sparse. 33
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Empirical studies in public procurement from sub-Saharan Africa largely ignore ethical work climate and yet the psychological environment of public procuremnet officers affect their perceptions (Ntayi et al., 2010; Ntayi, Byabashija, Eyaa, Ngoma, & Muliira, 2010). This is supported by a new stream of research from Ugandan retail outlets of medium to large entreprises which revealed that instrumental ethical climate was a significant predictor of employee behavioural performance (Ntayi, Beijuka, Mawanga, & Muliira, 2009). Ethical work climate is important because organizations that strive for excellence have high expectations for socially responsible and ethical behaviors (Ntayi et al., 2012). However, Ugandan PDEs are characterized by high incidence of unethical behavior. This tends to increase the PDEs liability, transaction costs (Neese, Ferrell, & Ferrell, 2005) and low performance (Leung, 2008). This study attempts to explore the prevailing PDE ethical work climate and provide leadership implications. The joint interest, efficiency, code of conduct and the governing law(Victor & Cullen, 1988), and ego are some of the common implications for leadership in organizations today (VanSandt, Shepard & Zappe, 2006 and Deshapande, 1996).
2.0 Literature Review
Ethical climate is the prevailing perception of typical organizational practice and procedure which has been set to guide mode of conduct of...