Ethical Theories

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INTRODUCTION
The first article ‘hundreds of economists agree Marijuana legalization could save taxpayers $13 billion per year’ by Jonathan Benson underlines a sensible ethical issue which legalizing a plant regarded as drug – though non-narcotic – in other to save and to make more money. In second article, “Pepsi's 'Next' generation - Less sugar!”, Scott Morefield highlights Pepsi’s procedures of making soft-drink –thereby making money – which harmful for the customers. On one hand, Pepsi gets profits from sales of its soft-drink. On the other hand, Customers give money and trust and get a drink but with unwanted toxins and health costs over their lifetime.  In the body of the essay we review five theories of ethics and their implications in the two articles. UTILITARIANISM

Though there are many varieties of the view discussed, Utilitarianism is an ethical theory holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes the overall "happiness". It is thus a form of consequentialism, meaning that the moral worth of an action is determined only by its resulting outcome, and that one can only weigh the morality of an action after knowing all its consequences. Utilitarianism is one of the most powerful and persuasive approaches to normative ethics in the history of philosophy. The Classical Utilitarian, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, identified the good with pleasure, so, like Epicurus, were hedonists about value. They also held that we ought to maximize the good, that is, bring about ‘the greatest amount of good for the greatest number’. Utilitarianism is generally held to be the view that the morally right action is the action that produces the most good. According to the article 1, the report written to the president, State Governors, and State Legislators states that legalizing, taxing, and regulating marijuana would do wonders to reduce inflated budgets and generate new revenue streams. On the contrary, legalizing marijuana would not only save taxpayers billions of dollars a year in unnecessary costs, but it would also jumpstart the economy to the tune of $100 billion a year or more, say some economists. All these underlying issues briefly highlight on the theory of utilitarianism which morally obliged to generate the greatest good for the greatest number by assessing all the consequences for all affected in short or long term and also value everyone equally in way of committing to the common but not individual good. The issue contained in the article aims at promoting the wellbeing of the country as well as its citizens. It is not an issue that is targeted to an individual but to the people of the same interest and people with different interest. Utilitarian’s said that the morally right action is action that produces the most good. The article vividly shows utilitarian’s view that actions that produces most good is morally right. A critical example is the statement "If, however, marijuana were taxed similarly to alcohol or tobacco, it might generate as much as $6.2 billion annually." thereby increasing the country’s revenue. Contrary to Utilitarianism does the article also clarify the demerits of the legalization of marijuana i.e. the drug industry and the prison system, much of which has now been privatized, would suffer greatly. KANTIAN DEONTOLOGY

The theory of deontology states that we are morally obliged to act in accordance with a certain set of principles or rules regardless of the outcome Deontological holds that some acts are always wrong even if they achieve morally admirable ends. An act, in deontology, is always judged independently of its outcome. This is because deontologists do not equate the right with the good like utilitarianism do.

However according to our article, marijuana legalization will save tax payers a whole lot of money as well as improve the standard of the economy but this would be so beneficial if only we had focused on the concept of Utilitarianism. Our objective is...
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