Indians had been demanding complete independence since 1929. Eventually, in 1945, Mr. Clement Atlee, who was sympathetic towards the Indians, became the Prime Minister of England. He sent the Cabinet Mission to India to solve the political problem (whether to divide the country or to leave it united) and to devise means of granting her independence. It recommended that there should be a Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution of India. The Constituent Assembly of India met under the temporary chairmanship of Sachidananda Sinha, as he was then the eldest member of the Assembly, and elected Dr. Rajendra Prasad as its permanent chairman. The Constituent Assembly consisted of members who were elected by the members of the provincial legislatures and not by the people directly. Its members represented all the parties through most of the members were from the Congress. For this reason, the Muslim League put hurdles in its functioning and boycotted it from its very inception. The Assembly, however, started its work on 9 December 1946, in the Central Hall of the Parliament House. Democracy:
Our Constitution provides for a democratic from of government. It means that all the citizens of our country have the right to decide matters relating to the governing of the state. The Government is, in the real sense, of the people, for the people and by the people. All people above the age of 18 years have the right to elect their government. The people elect their representatives who from the government. It is through these representatives, who have the backing of the majority of the people; decisions are taken in political matters. This is called political democracy. India is the world’s largest democracy. In a democracy, all people have certain rights and freedom. But political democracy only, i.e. right to elect the government, is not enough. There is need for social democracy too. In a democracy, all the citizens are to be treated equally. Each one is given equal opportunity, irrespective of his caste, creed, religion and sex. Political democracy without social democracy has no meaning. Unless we provide equal justice and equal opportunities to all we shall not be able to enjoy the fruits of freedom. We must have political as well as social democracy. Fundamental Rights
The fundamental rights are regarded as the soul of our Constitution. The Constitution guarantees equal rights and privileges to all the citizens. These fundamental rights are necessary because they did not only provide security and equality to all citizens, but also ensure the all-round development of the individual and thus the development of the nation. The Constitution of India bestows six fundamental rights upon its citizens. They put a check on the absoluteness and the despotic nature of the government. These rights are justifiable and cannot be denied to any citizen. The court ensures their observance by the State. They safeguard the citizens from the excess of the Executive and the Legislature. Right to Equality:
Our society has been divided over various issues from the very early ages. The caste system for long divided the society. People belonging to the lower caste were not given the same privileges and opportunities as those of the upper caste. Then the British created a class of zamindars and feudal lords who were very harsh on the common people. The titles conferred by the British made them distinct from the others. Therefore, the right of equality given to us our Constitution is extremely important. It establishes equality before law. Article 14 of the Constitution...