Essay on Smart Card

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A smart card is a plastic card about the size of a credit card, with an embedded microchip that can be loaded with data, used for telephone calling, electronic cash payments, and other applications, and then periodically refreshed for additional use. Currently or soon, you may be able to use a smart card to: * Dial a connection on a mobile telephone and be charged on a per-call basis * Establish your identity when logging on to an Internet access provider or to an online bank * Pay for parking at parking meters or to get on subways, trains, or buses * Give hospitals or doctors personal data without filling out a form * Make small purchases at electronic stores on the Web (a kind of cybercash) * Buy gasoline at a gasoline station

Over a billion smart cards are already in use. Currently, Europe is the region where they are most used. Ovum, a research firm, predicts that 2.7 billion smart cards will be shipped annually by 2003. Another study forecasts a $26.5 billion market for recharging smart cards by 2005. Compaq and Hewlett-Packard are reportedly working on keyboards that include smart card slots that can be read like bank credit cards. The hardware for making the cards and the devices that can read them is currently made principally by Bull, Gemplus, and Schlumberger.

How Smart Cards Work
A smart card contains more information than a magnetic stripe card and it can be programmed for different applications. Some cards can contain programming and data to support multiple applications and some can be updated to add new applications after they are issued. Smart cards can be designed to be inserted into a slot and read by a special reader or to be read at a distance, such as at a toll booth. Cards can be disposable (as at a trade-show) or reloadable (for most applications). An industry standard interface between programming and PC hardware in a smart card has been defined by the PC/SC Working Group, representing Microsoft, IBM, Bull, Schlumberger, and other interested companies. Another standard is called OpenCard. There are two leading smart card operating systems: JavaCard and MULTOS.

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| This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. * It needs to be expanded. Tagged since January 2010. * It may require general cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Tagged since January 2010. * Sections should be added to this article, to conform with Wikipedia's Manual of Style. Tagged since January 2010.|

| This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject.The following WikiProjects or Portals may be able to help recruit one:• WikiProject Electronics· Electronics Portal • WikiProject Computing· Computing PortalIf another appropriate WikiProject or portal exists, please adjust this template accordingly. (January 2010)| This article is regarding smart cards that use electrical connectors to transmit data. For smart cards that use radio frequencies see contactless smart card

Many different pad layouts can be found on a contact Smart card A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC), is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits. There are two broad categories of ICCs. Memory cards contain only non-volatile memory storage components, and perhaps dedicated security logic. Microprocessor cards contain volatile memory and microprocessor components. The card is made of plastic, generally polyvinyl chloride, but sometimes acrylonitrile butadiene styrene or polycarbonate . Smart cards may also provide strong security authentication for single sign-on within large organizations. Contents[hide] * 1 Overview * 1.1 Benefits * 2 History * 3 Contact smart card * 3.1 Signals * 3.2 Reader * 4 Contactless * 5 Hybrids * 6 Communication protocols * 7 Credit card contactless technology * 8...
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