Environmental Degradation in Mumbai

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ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN MUMBAI

MICHAEL RAJU MARIADAS F09038 Contents

INTRODUCTION3
HISTORY3
GEOGRAPHY3
CLIMATE4
CULTURE4
CHRONIC RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI:5
Gas Chembur:5
South Bombay:5
New Bombay:5
Crowded city6
Chemical related disasters in past 10 years.6
MIGRANTS IN MUMBAI6
THE SLUMS OF MUMBAI7
History of Slums:7
The Birth of Slums7
Situation prevailing in slums8
GLOBAL WARMING10
Global warming in Mumbai.10
NOISE POLLUTION11
Sources of noise pollution11
How to reduce the noise pollution12
INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION13
Case study of industrial pollution14
CONCLUSION14

INTRODUCTION
Mumbai formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. The city proper is the most populous city in the world, with approximately 14 million inhabitants. Along with the neighbouring suburbs of Navi Mumbai and Thane, it forms the world's 4th largest urban agglomeration, with around 19 million people. Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. Mumbai's port handles about 60% of India's maritime cargo. As of 2008, Mumbai has been ranked as an Alpha world city. HISTORY

Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands: Bombay Island, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman's Island (also known as Little Colaba). Pleistocene sediments found near Kandivali in northern Mumbai by British archaeologist Todd in 1939 suggest that these islands were inhabited since the Stone Age. Their earliest known inhabitants were the Kolis, a fishing community. In the third century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. Buddhist monks, scholars, and artists created the artwork, inscriptions, and sculpture of the Kanheri Caves in the mid third century BCE and Mahakali Caves. GEOGRAPHY

Mumbai is located at 18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E / 18.9750°N 72.8258°E / 18.9750; 72.8258 in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai City and Mumbai Suburban District, which form two separate districts of Maharashtra. The city region is also commonly referred to as the Island City. Mumbai, as an urban entity, spans a total area of 603 km2 (233 sq mi), while Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), spans a total area of 437.71 km2 (169 sq mi), with the Island City spanning 67.79 km2 (26 sq mi) and the suburban district spanning 370 km2 (143 sq mi).

CLIMATE
Lying in a tropical zone and near the Arabian Sea, Mumbai experiences two clear seasons, a humid season and a dry season. The humid season, between March and October, is characterized by high humidity and temperatures of over 30 °C (86 °F). Between June and September, the monsoon rains lash the city, supplying most of the city's annual rainfall of 1,800 millimeters (70.9 in), with an average of 600 millimeters (23.6 in) falling in July alone. The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 millimeters (135.9 in) in 1954. The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 millimeters (37.17 in) on 26 July 2005. The dry season, between November and February, is characterized by moderate levels of humidity and warm to cool weather. Cold northerly winds are responsible for a mild chill during January and February. January is the coolest month of the year with mean daily minimum being 16.4 °C (61.5 °F). CULTURE

Mumbai's culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music, and theatres. The city offers a lifestyle that is rich, cosmopolitan and diverse, with a variety...
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